Lee, Francis - História

Lee, Francis - História

Francis Lightfoot Lee nasceu em 1734 na propriedade de sua família em Westmoreland County, Virginia. O caçula de oito filhos, ele recebeu reforço escolar enquanto crescia, mas nunca frequentou a faculdade. Quando seu pai morreu em 1750, ele herdou uma propriedade, Coton, no condado de Fairfax. Em 1757, ele se envolveu na política quando foi nomeado para servir como tenente de Loudoun pela legislatura colonial. Ele também representou o condado na Casa dos Burgesses.

O envolvimento de Lee com a causa revolucionária remonta à Lei do Selo em 1765. Ele esteve consistentemente envolvido nas lutas da Virgínia com a Coroa até a eclosão da guerra cerca de dez anos depois. Ele compareceu ao Congresso Continental como um delegado da Virgínia e esteve especialmente envolvido nos comitês que tratam de assuntos militares e marítimos. Além disso, fez parte da comissão encarregada de trabalhar os Artigos da Confederação.

Ele encerrou sua carreira no Congresso em 1779 e voltou para casa para levar uma existência tranquila e privada. Ele faleceu em 1797 com a idade de 62 anos e foi sepultado no cemitério da família de sua esposa em Mount Airy, Virgínia.


Reescrevendo a história: o escritor-diretor Francis Lee sobre um romance queer desconhecido

Alguns anos se passaram desde que Francis Lee veio ao Festival Internacional de Cinema de Edimburgo, mas ele se lembra bem daquela noite. “Foi incrivelmente alegre. Entrar naquele cinema [Festival Theatre] em Edimburgo, naquele enorme e belo espaço, e ver todas aquelas pessoas ... foi simplesmente glorioso e divertido, emocionante e emocionante ”. Sua estreia O próprio país de Deus, após estreias exultantes no Sundance e Berlinale, tinha chegado a Edimburgo para sua estreia no Reino Unido na Gala de Abertura do Festival em 2017.

Combinando personagens fortemente generosos com romance terno, O próprio país de Deus é uma história de amor entre o jovem agricultor frustrado Johnny e o trabalhador migrante romeno Gheorghe. O pôster do filme fica orgulhosamente acima do manto nos escritórios do Filmhouse quatro anos depois e não há nenhum sinal de que ele está se movendo. Lee sorri calorosamente ao ouvir isso, como se o fato ajudasse a confirmar o legado crescente do filme nos livros de registro do cinema queer britânico. Ele se junta a nós no Zoom de sua casa na zona rural de Yorkshire para discutir O próprio país de Deus, seu segundo longa-metragem Amonite e os fios comuns, e muitas vezes pessoais, que unem sua narrativa queer.

Francis Lee, Josh O'Connor e Alex Secăreanu na Gala de Abertura do EIFF 2017 para O próprio país de Deus.

Explorando a vida e obra da paleontóloga do século 19, Mary Anning, Amonite é uma história de amor suave e envolvente ambientada na surpreendente Costa Jurássica de Dorset. Agora que os dias de descobertas famosas e lucrativas ficaram para trás, Mary (interpretada por uma deslumbrante Kate Winslet) passa seu tempo coletando fósseis comuns para açoitar os turistas, mal conseguindo sustentar a si mesma e a sua mãe doente. Quando um cavalheiro rico oferece a Mary um amplo pagamento para prover companhia a sua jovem esposa, Charlotte (Saoirse Ronan), Mary aceita a contragosto. Inicialmente hostis uma com a outra, as duas mulheres são atraídas para mais perto por suas circunstâncias isoladas e uma história de amor muito íntima e deliberada emerge.

Amonite foi um projeto “muito pessoal” desde o início. Atraída pelas circunstâncias da classe trabalhadora de Anning - ela nasceu na pobreza e foi mal educada - sua história de vida quase totalmente desconhecida tornou-se uma possibilidade intrigante para Lee. “Acho que ela se sentiu como uma voz oculta do meu ponto de vista porque era da classe trabalhadora”, diz Lee, como um cineasta da classe trabalhadora e homossexual com experiência em enxerto pesado, tendo trabalhado em um ferro-velho para ajudar a financiar O próprio país de Deus. “Eu queria fazer outra história queer para a classe trabalhadora, porque sinto que essas são vozes que não estamos conseguindo ver na tela neste tipo de filme.”

Amonite (2020) estrelado por Saoirse Ronan e Kate Winslet.

Apesar de sua presença como uma das principais paleontólogas de seu tempo, o trabalho de Anning era comumente considerado por homens ricos como se fosse seu. “Era uma sociedade incrivelmente patriarcal e foi isso que a bloqueou na maior parte do tempo.” Essa exploração intencional de seu talento significou que seu legado nunca foi reconhecido em toda a sua vida. Lee assumiu a responsabilidade de escrever uma história respeitosa que fosse "digna" de suas realizações, mas também para trazer "um holofote para as pessoas da classe trabalhadora, mulheres, histórias queer e histórias queer."

"Na história, para os historiadores, onde não há prova concreta absoluta de uma vida queer, eles assumem a heterossexualidade."

O próprio país de Deus e Amonite são duas histórias únicas que visivelmente promovem vidas queer, que lidam com emoções complexas de tristeza, solidão e paixão com uma transparência hábil. Mais notavelmente, ambos os filmes não mostram nenhuma dúvida, confusão ou tristeza quanto à sexualidade de seus personagens. A necessidade de representação queer no cinema é importante, mas a proeminência particular das histórias de amor queer dá um grande passo em direção à normalização das experiências LGBTQ + cotidianas.

As narrativas lésbicas são em sua maioria apagadas ou rebaixadas como amizades comuns nos arquivos históricos, especialmente nos séculos XVIII e XIX, mas isso não significa que não existissem. “Eu senti que, porque não havia nada escrito sobre a vida pessoal [de Mary], então eu poderia colocar minha própria opinião sobre isso ... Eu estava realmente interessado na ideia de que não há nenhuma evidência de que ela já teve um relacionamento com um homem. Na história, para os historiadores, onde não há prova concreta absoluta de uma vida queer, eles assumem a heterossexualidade. Achei muito interessante, porque obviamente sabemos que não há apenas gays, lésbicas, bissexuais. Existe assexual, não é binário, existem muitos aspectos diferentes para alguém. ”

Francis Lee e Kate Winslet no set de Amonite.

Lee explica que o romance queer imaginado surgiu da necessidade de Anning receber algum reconhecimento. “Para mim, parecia que a coisa mais respeitosa e edificante a fazer era dar a ela um romance com alguém que sentisse que poderia ser igual nesta sociedade ... Há evidências dessas incríveis relações apaixonadas, românticas e de apoio ao longo da vida que as mulheres estavam tendo com as mulheres através das cartas que escreviam umas para as outras e eu queria homenagear isso ... Acho que o que foi realmente importante foi olhar para o apoio que aquela mulher deu às mulheres e ver as mulheres trabalhando juntas, fisicamente trabalhando juntas, não apenas emocionalmente Apoio, suporte."

Mesmo com duas das estrelas de cinema mais famosas do mundo nos papéis principais, o enredo fictício do filme não escapou da reação. Vários romances fictícios escreveram histórias sugerindo que Anning teve relacionamentos com homens, mas é apenas De amonite história de amor queer que está sob pressão, para grande frustração de Lee.

"A misoginia está viva, bem e com força."

“Fiquei muito chocado ao ver algumas das reações a isso e a maneira como as pessoas têm sido muito dogmáticas e zangadas por eu ter sugerido que ela poderia ter tido um relacionamento do mesmo sexo. Fazer este filme me fez perceber que demos muitos saltos em termos de gênero e sexualidade, mas na verdade, ainda há um longo caminho a percorrer. E uma coisa que percebo agora é que a misoginia está viva, bem e com força. Isso realmente teve um grande impacto em mim e me fez repensar como eu interajo e quem eu sou e todo esse tipo de coisa. Histórias sobre homens queer são tratadas de maneira muito, muito diferente das histórias sobre mulheres queer e que eu não percebi. ”

Destacando involuntariamente uma mulher queer da classe trabalhadora, Ammonite não para por aí invertendo a narrativa típica de um drama de época. “Eu me lembro bem quando estava fazendo a pesquisa para o filme, havia um filme fantástico sobre as mulheres da classe trabalhadora nesse período. Eu me deparei com todas essas mulheres pescadoras e elas usavam calças e enfiavam as saias por cima das calças e isso obviamente lhes dava a capacidade de fazer o que precisavam para trabalhar. Adorei a ideia de que Maria havia reapropriado um par de calças de seu pai. "

O figurino de Michael O'Connor é realmente algo para se maravilhar. Com o personagem da classe trabalhadora da história em seu coração pulsante, cenas de trabalho manual são enfatizadas pelas texturas dos trajes e Lee se refere a suas próprias experiências como inspiração. “Uma das coisas sobre minha origem e ser da classe trabalhadora, sempre me senti desconfortável em situações sociais às quais não estou acostumada, então pudemos usar as roupas para enfatizar isso ... Quando Charlotte sai com seu lindo vestido, vestido caro, bonito, limpo e de alta costura, Mary está lá em seu segundo melhor vestido com gola puída. ”

Kate Winslet como Mary Anning e Saoirse Ronan como Charlotte Murchison em Amonite.

Amonite é uma narrativa sobre normalizar o não convencional e torná-lo belo. Lee muito habilmente sobrepõe as ideias tradicionais de feminilidade com as qualidades que as mulheres deveriam rejeitar e até mesmo os trajes eram capazes de demonstrar isso. “Os espartilhos eram muito interessantes, porque decidimos que Mary não usaria espartilho quando saísse para fossar. Seria muito restritivo. Ela não seria capaz de se dobrar ou pegar coisas. Essas coisas realmente sutis com os figurinos ajudaram a construir algo que não parecia apenas um filme de época. Não eram fantasias, eram as roupas que esses personagens usavam e com que viviam ”.

Da mesma forma, as cenas de sexo do filme são silenciosamente desafiadoras, principalmente apenas por existirem visivelmente na tela. Como Lee descreve sem rodeios as cenas de sexo queer no cinema, "você não vê ou vai até uma árvore". Ambos em O próprio país de Deus e Amonite, cenas de sexo cruas e íntimas são usadas como parte da narrativa, substituindo o diálogo para contar a história. Essa normalização do sexo queer na tela é revigorante de se ver e a narrativa é recompensada por isso.

Lee trabalhou duro para garantir que essas cenas capturassem o peso emocional e necessário para transmitir a história. “[Sexo] pode ser erótico, ou suave, ou amoroso, ou duro ou o que quer que seja e acho que queríamos realmente encontrar a forma muito específica como eles se comunicavam nessas cenas íntimas ... Com Kate e Saoirse, é muito sobre eu ouvindo e eles conversando muito sobre como deve ser a sensação e a aparência e quais podem ser as possibilidades. ” Apesar de ter sido escrito e dirigido por um olhar masculino, De amonite cenas de sexo não são para o olhar masculino. Em vez disso, eles oferecem uma perspectiva honesta e orientada para o personagem que respeita a história e a comunidade que defende.

"Todos me disseram que ninguém iria ver [Próprio país de Deus]"

“Eu não pensei muito sobre o olhar masculino, tenho que ser honesto, porque acho que os filmes que conto são tão voltados para os personagens ... Como podemos torná-los o mais verdadeiros possível? Passei horas meticulosas escrevendo um roteiro muito, muito detalhado. No script, cada olhar, cada olhar, cada nuance, cada movimento está anotado no script. ”

Onde os homens do século XIX intervieram e se apropriaram indevidamente do trabalho de Mary Anning em detrimento de seu legado, Lee interveio para reapropriar para um bem maior. Histórias queer, sejam endurecidas na lama dos pântanos de Yorkshire ou encharcadas na água do mar do século XIX, são vitais para nossa compreensão das experiências LGBTQ + vividas e esta representação é o que mais importa. “Todos me disseram que ninguém iria ver [O próprio país de Deus] ”, Disse Lee, acrescentando com orgulho,“ e isso não acabou sendo a verdade ”.

Estabelecendo-se como uma espécie de pioneiro do cinema em narrativas queer não celebradas, O próprio país de Deus e Amonite formam um dístico cinematográfico muito sociável. Mas era esse o objetivo de Lee desde o início? “Eu realmente não tinha pensado nisso. Foi um processo muito natural. No final da produção do filme, tornou-se evidente, claramente, que era uma peça complementar para O próprio país de Deus. ” Como costuma acontecer com romances queer, o que pode começar como uma amizade normalmente acaba se tornando algo muito mais significativo.


Cavalo leve e raposa do pântano invadem Georgetown, Carolina do Sul

Em 24 de janeiro de 1781, os comandantes patriotas Tenente Coronel Light Horse Henry Lee e o Brigadeiro General Francis Swamp Fox Marion, da milícia da Carolina do Sul, combinam forças e realizam um ataque a Georgetown, Carolina do Sul, que é defendida por 200 soldados britânicos.

Marion ganhou fama e o apelido de Swamp Fox por sua habilidade de golpear e então rapidamente se retirar para os pântanos da Carolina do Sul sem deixar vestígios. Sua estratégia militar é considerada um exemplo de guerra de guerrilha do século 18 e serviu de inspiração parcial para o filme O Patriota, estrelado por Mel Gibson.

Marion assumiu a força da milícia da Carolina do Sul reunida pela primeira vez por Thomas Sumter em 1780. Sumter, a outra inspiração para o personagem Mel Gibson & # x2019s no filme, devolveu as táticas de terror dos Carolina Loyalists & # x2019 depois que os Loyalists queimaram sua plantação. Quando Sumter retirou-se da luta ativa para cuidar de um ferimento, Marion o substituiu e formou uma estratégia com o general Nathaniel Greene, que havia chegado recentemente às Carolinas para liderar as forças continentais. Em 24 de janeiro, os Patriots comandados por Marion e Lee conseguiram chegar a Georgetown sem serem detectados e capturaram pelo menos três oficiais, incluindo o comandante britânico.

No mês seguinte, a cavalaria de Lee & # x2019 foi capaz de derrotar um bando de cavalaria legalista em Haw River, Carolina do Norte, aproveitando a extrema semelhança dos uniformes do Patriota com os das tropas do tenente-coronel britânico Banastre Tarleton & # x2019s. Os homens do Coronel britânico John Pyle e # x2019s em Haw River ficaram surpresos ao descobrir que os cavaleiros que se aproximavam deles não eram amigos, pois pareciam à distância, mas sim inimigos. Perdendo três dedos e cegando um olho durante o combate, o Coronel Pyle, um médico de profissão, sobreviveu se escondendo no que agora é conhecido como Pyle & # x2019s Pond.


Suspeito da Pensilvânia acusado de atirar em policial descrito como um 'perigo' para a comunidade

As principais manchetes do Fox News Flash estão aqui. Confira o que está clicando em Foxnews.com.

O suspeito da Pensilvânia que permaneceu em fuga na terça-feira após supostamente atirar em um policial três vezes enquanto estava algemado foi descrito pela polícia como um "perigo para a comunidade" com um histórico de aplicação da lei, dizem os relatórios.

Koby Lee Francis, 22, ainda não foi localizado após o incidente descarado que aconteceu do lado de fora da delegacia de polícia de McKeesport, perto de Pittsburgh, na tarde de domingo. Vídeo divulgado pelos investigadores mostra o policial Gerasimos Athans abrindo a porta do lado do passageiro de uma viatura estacionada em frente ao prédio e cambaleando para trás depois que a polícia disse que ele pegou fogo de dentro do veículo.

A filmagem então mostra Francis saindo da viatura com as mãos algemadas na frente dele antes de atirar no oficial novamente e fugir. Athans, que não sofreu ferimentos fatais, deve ter alta do hospital nos próximos dias.

"Este é um suspeito armado que é obviamente perigoso. Ele fugiu ainda armado. Há um perigo para a comunidade", disse o superintendente da polícia do condado de Allegheny, Coleman McDonough, na segunda-feira, segundo a KDKA. "Queremos que termine aqui. Queremos que este seja o último dano infligido por aquele indivíduo ou qualquer outro indivíduo. Essa é a nossa principal preocupação."

McDonough também disse que está "muito feliz" pelo fato de Athans - um oficial de 32 anos que ingressou no departamento há quatro anos - "poder passar o Natal com sua família ao invés do que poderia ter sido um evento muito trágico . "

Quanto a Francis, ele já se declarou culpado e foi condenado a liberdade condicional depois de ser acusado de invasão de casa que aconteceu em McKeesport em outubro de 2017, de acordo com a WTAE.

Citando registros do tribunal, a estação de TV também informou que Francis se confessou culpado de um delito relacionado a drogas no ano passado e foi condenado a seis a 12 meses de prisão, seguidos de dois anos de liberdade condicional.

Os eventos de domingo aconteceram depois que Francisco foi preso e cumpriu uma ordem de proteção. Ele foi encontrado estacionado do lado de fora de uma residência em violação da lei e os policiais descobriram uma pistola dentro de seu veículo, disse a polícia.

Koby Lee Francis está sendo procurado depois que a polícia diz que atirou em um policial no fim de semana. (Procurador do distrito de Allegheny County)

"Obviamente, este foi um ato notório da parte dele", disse McDonough. "Ele foi a este endereço violando uma (ordem de proteção contra abuso). Ele foi lá com raiva. Ele foi armado. Acho que é do interesse da comunidade nos ajudar a trazê-lo para cá."

McDonough disse que Francis "foi revistado, obviamente" quando foi preso, mas "conseguiu esconder uma arma e essa foi a arma que ele usou. Para atirar (no oficial)". O vídeo confirmou que ele havia sido algemado com as mãos nas costas, mas de alguma forma ele conseguiu colocar as mãos na frente dele antes de sua fuga, disse McDonough.

Depois de ser baleado, o oficial "esvaziou sua arma" ao responder ao fogo, mas não havia evidências de que Francis foi atingido, disse McDonough.

Francisco estava sendo procurado por tentativa de homicídio, fuga, fuga para evitar apreensão, agressão agravada e acusações de porte de arma de fogo.

McDonough chamou a busca pelo fugitivo, tanto localmente quanto em qualquer lugar em que ele possa ter fugido, um esforço "com todas as mãos no convés" que precisava da ajuda da comunidade.

Edmund DeMarche da Fox News e a Associated Press contribuíram para este relatório.


Lee, Francis - História

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Durante minha segunda semana no Festival Internacional de Cinema de Melbourne, tive o prazer de conversar com Francis Lee, o diretor de Deus & # 8217s Own Country. Tendo visto seu fantástico primeiro longa-metragem na noite anterior, conversamos sobre o início do filme & # 8217s, a enorme resposta da crítica que o filme recebeu internacionalmente e como ele aperfeiçoou seu verdadeiro sentimento de autenticidade.

Alex Lines for Film Inquiry: God & # 8217s Own Country explodiu internacionalmente, e você pôde estrear o filme em Sundance no início deste ano, então eu gostaria de perguntar como foi essa experiência em Sundance?

Francis Lee: Foi realmente extraordinário e um pouco estranho. Eu realmente não pensei sobre o que iria acontecer com o filme quando eu o estava fazendo, eu apenas tentei ficar bem focado, realmente pestanejou, trabalhei no filme e Sundance foi a primeira pessoa a ver, eles viram um bruto corte dele, então eles não tinham visto a versão final, mas eles a selecionaram e eu não tinha terminado, então eu tive que terminar, então eu não terminei até o início de janeiro, e então eu estava literalmente em um avião para Sundance, então não havia tempo para realmente pensar sobre isso, processar, nada.

Fomos ao Sundance e o filme começou, esgotou completamente e a reação do público começou a ser incrível. Realmente surpreendentemente incrível e então os comentários saíram e eles foram realmente incríveis. Foi muito impressionante, porque eu fiz esse filme, sabe, na área onde eu cresci, onde moro e onde minha família está, para que de repente ele chegasse ao maior festival de cinema da América e recebesse a reação que teve. foi humilhante e opressor.

Um dos elementos que realmente apreciei no filme foi seu apelo universal. É um filme para todo o público adulto, nunca parece excludente ou nicho. Com a criação desse filme, isso foi algo importante para você?

Francis Lee: Não, foi algo em que nunca pensei. O que pensei foi a história que queria contar e ser muito sincero com os personagens. Acho que sabia que não queria contar uma história de assumir o cargo e acho que não queria contar uma história sobre as dificuldades de ser gay, acho que porque essa nunca foi minha experiência. O que eu queria focar, a coisa que sempre achei mais difícil na minha vida era me apaixonar e ter que ser aberta e vulnerável, para amar e ser amada. Foi muito importante para mim olhar para um personagem que está passando por isso e não em torno de sua sexualidade.

Houve algo que você viu em outro cinema queer que não estava sendo representado corretamente?

Francis Lee: Não, não particularmente, uma das coisas que eu não tinha visto retratada de uma maneira que vi era na zona rural de Yorkshire, eram as pessoas da classe trabalhadora em Yorkshire e era isso que eu estava olhando. Olhando aquele mundo, olhando aquela paisagem, olhando aquelas pessoas, exatamente da maneira que eu as via. Em termos de outros filmes queer, acho que não estava tentando abordar nada.

Eu quero entrar em alguns dos elementos mais técnicos do filme. O uso reservado da música foi uma decisão consciente desde o início do filme? Porque eu acho que a falta de pontuação geral torna a escolha da música no final muito mais poderosa.

Francis Lee: Sim e é uma música tão boa, você sabia Patrick Wolf & # 8217s música de antemão?

Não, eu não fiz.

Francis Lee: Ele é incrível. Sim, [a falta de música] foi uma decisão consciente. Saiu de, eu não tinha realmente pensado sobre música, mas eu sabia, tenho uma audição muito sensível, eu sabia que queria estar totalmente imerso neste mundo e adoro som. Som natural, acho que para mim, muitas vezes é tão importante quanto o visual, às vezes mais importante. Eu acho que pode transmitir emoção, senso de lugar, pode meio que entregar todas as coisas que uma trilha sonora de filme tradicional pode fazer. Além disso, essas pessoas nesta colina são pessoas que não têm música em suas vidas, então, de repente, ter música tocando de algum lugar, não parecia autêntico ou certo.

A única música que realmente ouvimos é no pub, o CD player que eles têm no pub, então eu construí essa paisagem sonora realmente, como minha trilha sonora e eu pedi para meu designer de som gravando horas e horas da atmosfera de todos os locais, de todos os lugares em Yorkshire, os sons dos pássaros, tudo. Então, na edição, começamos a construir essa trilha sonora, então é orquestrada de forma muito específica, os sons específicos do vento, os sons dos pássaros aparecem em locais muito específicos e os pássaros são significativos no tipo de pássaro que são, por causa da metáfora que significa para mim. Acho que, para mim, é uma jornada muito mais envolvente, você vê, ouve, você sente que está lá.

A cinematografia faz um ótimo trabalho em vender a intimidade entre os 2 personagens principais e também vender a sensação tátil e horripilante de trabalhar em uma fazenda. Como foi o processo de realização dessa cinematografia?

Francis Lee: Eu trabalhei com Joshua James Richards, o cinegrafista, que é um artista por seus próprios méritos, ele é um homem incrivelmente talentoso e inteligente, trabalhamos de 3 a 4 meses antes das filmagens e conversamos muito sobre o filme e como era a sensação , como parecia, como a câmera se moveria, então criamos um pequeno livro de regras, o que a câmera poderia e não poderia fazer, onde poderia ser posicionada e onde não poderia, como se moveria, acho que trabalhamos rapidamente que queríamos ver este mundo da perspectiva de Johnny & # 8217s, então sabíamos que a câmera sempre seria bem próxima e pessoal de Johnny, e eu estava muito interessado em não retratar esta paisagem em grandes fotos icônicas e impressionantes, Eu sabia que queria ver o efeito que a paisagem tinha sobre os personagens, e não a própria paisagem.

Então, novamente, tratava-se de mantê-lo firme com a perspectiva de Johnny & # 8217, acompanhando-o nesta jornada. Joshua e eu trabalhamos a partir de um banco de referência de fotografias e pinturas, em particular as pinturas sendo úteis porque são muito texturizadas. Isso realmente ajudou, assim como examinar a iluminação nas pinturas, é muito interessante. Nós meio que construímos tudo isso e trabalhamos a partir dessas imagens.

Eu percebi que você pensou muito na iluminação dos diferentes personagens, em termos de mudar a temperatura da cor de fria para quente, refletindo a mudança nos personagens.

Francis Lee: Absolutamente. Então, o que foi superimportante foi a mudança. As mudanças, as mudanças sutis, então quando Gheorghe chega, por exemplo, ele muda a atmosfera dos lugares em que ele está. Então, quando Johnny lhe mostra a caravana pela primeira vez, há essa horrível luz oscilante de lâmpadas nuas, o O lugar inteiro parece horrível, mas o que ele [Gheorghe] faz, é tirar a lâmpada e colocá-la em uma lâmpada, e ele instantaneamente muda aquele lugar e a atmosfera daquele lugar e quase se torna um lar. Ele traz conforto com ele, que é uma ideia que carregamos por toda parte, usamos muito pouca iluminação artificial, a maior parte era de fonte.

O roteiro é muito bem escrito e apreciei o subtexto no diálogo do filme & # 8217s. Eu também notei muitas imagens espelhadas no filme, como cuspir, Johnny Saxby desaparecendo quando esses acidentes ocorrem na fazenda, técnicas de luta de Gheorghe e Johnny & # 8217, eu amo esse tipo de detalhes sutis. Quanto tempo levou para você transferir a ideia inicial do filme para o roteiro final?

Francis Lee: Sim, o roteiro é incrivelmente detalhado, mas não há muitos diálogos nele. É tudo descrição, então cada olhar, cada toque, cada tipo de gesto está tudo escrito no roteiro, então eu fui bastante prescritivo.

Meu processo para escrever este roteiro foi que eu tive essa ideia, então pensei sobre isso na minha cabeça por cerca de 6 meses, então eu descobri tudo, quem eles eram, o que eram, o que queriam, o que os estava impedindo de obter o que eles queriam, qual era o início, meio e fim e assim que tive isso, sentei-me e escrevi, escrevi muito rapidamente, em cerca de 4-5 dias, e depois passei cerca de uma semana tornando-o legível .

Esse foi o primeiro rascunho e depois o processo, conforme o roteiro se desenvolvia, o processo se tornou a estrutura nunca mudou, os personagens nunca mudaram, passou a ser apenas pressionar cada vez mais fundo, sempre em busca de mais verdade. Sempre em busca da autenticidade e apenas da emoção.

Eu li que você filmou cronologicamente para ajudar a construir o relacionamento com muito mais autenticidade na tela. Isso foi uma coisa difícil do lado da produção?

Francis Lee: Sim, acho que sempre foi um desafio para uma produção filmar cronologicamente, porque obviamente eles programam filmes em torno de locações, então vamos dizer que se estivéssemos filmando nesta sala e tivéssemos 10 cenas, mas eles poderiam ter sido cenas 1, Cena 10 etc, você apenas filma todos de costas porque você tinha a localização.

Torna-se um desafio para o design de produção, porque o que eles têm que fazer é preparar tantos outros conjuntos de antemão, então em um dia, geralmente, eles podem ter que preparar apenas um conjunto, mas neste filme, eles tiveram que preparar cerca de 5 ou 6. Além disso, você perde muito tempo, porque tem que se mover entre os sets e configurar e tudo mais.

Os atores principais do filme (Johnny e Alec) fizeram um extenso treinamento em trabalhos agrícolas para tornar suas cenas muito mais autênticas, mas como foi ter tantas cenas extensas com animais vivos? Eles dizem que trabalhar com animais sempre pode ser tão imprevisível.

Francis Lee: Bem, foi tão interessante, então eu soube antes de tudo que nunca quis nenhuma farsa neste filme, nunca quis um dublê de mão ou dublê, os meninos teriam que fazer tudo e o que eles tinham que fazer era bastante proficiente, tal como cordeiros dando à luz, examinando vacas, todo esse tipo de coisa, esfolar um cordeiro, há uma habilidade real envolvida, então eles saíram e trabalharam em fazendas por duas semanas solidamente, eles & # 8217d fizeram turnos de 8-9 horas por dia e eles aprenderam tudo, eles tinham que realmente entrar naquele mundo.

Em termos de trabalhar com animais, na verdade não foi tão problemático para mim, porque meu pai é fazendeiro, tivemos seu amigo Martin como nosso tratador de animais, que também é fazendeiro, e eles são suas ovelhas, então ele os conhece muito bem, ele é muito pragmático. Então, na verdade, as coisas dos animais estavam bem, o clima era a parte mais difícil.

Falando em atores, como você fez a escalação de Johnny e Alec? Foi um processo de audição ou você conhecia os caras antes?

Francis Lee: Não, eu não conhecia nenhum deles antes ou qualquer outro trabalho que eles haviam feito anteriormente. Trabalhei com uma diretora de elenco em Londres, ela fez uma lista de atores e Joshua O & # 8217Connor estava nessa lista e gostei da aparência dele, mas ele não estava no Reino Unido, estava filmando uma série de TV em Corfu, então não consegui conhecê-lo, mas enviei a ele algumas cenas para gravar na fita e eu peguei a fita de volta e eu peguei essa fita e eu estava convencido de que ele era do norte porque seu sotaque era tão bom e ele fez esse tipo de leitura realmente incrível, incrivelmente reprimida emocionalmente e mutilada, que eu pensei, oh Deus , há algo realmente interessante acontecendo aqui, ele está claramente muito torturado.

Cerca de duas semanas depois, eu o conheci em Londres e fiquei realmente chocado porque Josh é, primeiro ele & # 8217s de Cheltenham, que é uma adorável cidade de classe média no sul da Inglaterra, ele & # 8217s realmente sorridente e engraçado, ele & # 8217s realmente generoso e aberto, muito bonito, desajeitado e divertido, e pensei, Deus, como diabos ele fez isso na fita? Então comecei a trabalhar com ele e percebi muito rapidamente que ele é um ator totalmente transformador, então ele é um daqueles raros atores que tem a capacidade de mudar totalmente de forma, de criar outra pessoa, física e emocionalmente e isso realmente me empolgou, porque adoro trabalhar dessa forma.

Então nós o escalamos e então eu fui para Bucareste, Romênia, para trabalhar com uma brilhante diretora de elenco lá e ela fez uma lista de pessoas, que vieram me ver, atores realmente incríveis na Romênia. Então Alec Secareanu entra e ele era muito focado e inteligente, ele entendia intrinsecamente quem era essa pessoa e era capaz de entregar, porque é uma parte muito difícil, ele realmente teve que entregar esse calor, esse instinto quase maternal, sua força motriz é cuidado, isso é o que ele começa, mas ele não é um push-over. Portanto, é uma linha muito tênue e Alec foi simplesmente incrível. O filme iria viver ou morrer por sua química, então eu fiz uma lista de 3 atores romenos, os levei para o Reino Unido, trabalhei cada um com Josh e, felizmente, meu Alec favorito, trabalhou melhor com Josh juntos.

Agora eu sei que você já trabalhou como ator antes, essas experiências como ator informaram como você dirigiu os atores neste filme?

Francis Lee: Sim, totalmente, em primeiro lugar eu entendo o processo deles, eu também entendo como é horrível ficar na frente de uma câmera e se tornar vulnerável e fazer uma performance. Desde o início, eu queria fazer com que eles se sentissem protegidos, que nós construíssemos esse vínculo de confiança, que eles soubessem que eu sempre estaria lá para eles, independentemente, e eles sempre seriam meu foco.

Eu amo construir personagens do zero e saber tudo sobre eles, então foi isso que eu trouxe para o período de ensaio. Construímos esses personagens ao longo de um período de três meses, desde o momento em que nasceram até o momento em que os vemos no filme. We learnt everything about them, we were totally immersed in who they were. The other major factor was communication, having a dialogue where you’re able to articulate what you want.

With this movie, was there any other directors or films that informed its creation, any major cinematic influences?

Francis Lee: Maybe everything I’ve ever seen, but nothing specifically. There’s filmmakers I love, who would probably be the biggest influences, would be The Dardenne Brothers ou Jacques Audiard, so those kind of very character-driven European directors.

God’s Own Country is due to be released in Australia 31st August, in the UK on September 1st and in the USA on October 27th.


Smith Mansion – The House That Killed Its Owner

The home was built over eighteen years by local man Francis Lee Smith. Smith, who worked as a full-time engineer in Cody, made the property in his spare time.

Francis Lee Smith, designed and built ‘Smith Mansion’ from scratch.

Unfortunately, the house didn’t have a fairy-tale ending one would hope for. In 1992, disaster struck, and construction on the property came to an end, forever.

THE HISTORY OF THE SMITH MANSION

In the 1970s, Smith was inspired by an opportunity he couldn’t pass up. After a huge fire on the nearby Rattlesnake Mountain, much of the timber was left up for grabs for anyone willing to lug it away.

Smith had a truck and two willing associates who helped him start loading up. Yet it appears Smith could never stop!

At first, Smith wanted to build a comfortable home for him and his family. But once the house was completed, the project just kept growing. Over the years, what was supposed to be a small family home, became a large tower featuring balconies and viewing platforms (the top of which looks like the Eye of Sauron).

Smith outside the property as it looked initially.

Construction on the property sometime in the 80s.

In the lower floor living spaces, you had named rooms, such as the “hot room” and “cold room.” Through the colder months, they would spend their time in the “hot room” which featured a wood-burning stove. In warmer months, they would use the cooler temperatures of the “cold room.” The house had no running water, and no plumbing or electricity, except for that provided by a small generator.

The wood-burning stove in the hot room provided the only heat in the house.

Unfortunately for Smith, the family home wasn’t to be. Despite living there with his family for some time, his obsession with it became a strain on his marriage, which lead to divorce. His wife, son, and daughter moved back into the nearby town of Cody.

This however, only drove Smith to focus more on completing the building. However, it wasn’t to be, one day in 1992, the 48-year old was working on one of his slanted roofs when he fell (not for the first time) and died. Smith’s body wasn’t found until two days later.

THE HOUSE TODAY

After the death of Francis Lee Smith, the Smith Mansion passed on to his family. The home is now looked after by Smith’s daughter Sunny Larsen, who was just 12 when her father died but still remembers living in the property as a child.

Sunny Larsen, daughter of Francis Lee Smith and current owner.

Ela disse: “His original intent was to build a home for his family, and it just took on a life of its own.” It was only in later years that she realized her father had no blueprints, every addition was off-the-cuff. “He never knew what his next step was going to be.”

His daughter also rejects the idea that mental illness played a part in her father’s obsession. “He built,” she said. “He was an artist in every sense of the word.”

The property has been empty now for almost 30 years, exposed to the elements the wooden structure has begun to decay slowly. Teenagers from the nearby town of Cody routinely visit the property on the weekends and vandalize it.

One of the strangest features of the house is the large outdoor staircase, which leads to one of the upper floors. As Smith just kept building more and more, the design became troublesome, and so an outdoor staircase was the only option.

A set of steps that appear to lead to a garden shed on the side of the house.

One of the rooms still has a hammock that Smith would sleep on.

One of the far more habitable rooms in the property.

This decay hasn’t stopped Ms. Larsen from trying to sell the property though. In August 2018, Smith Mansion was listed on the market for $750,000, as of yet it still has no buyer.

How a half-finished wooden structure with no plumbing or electricity on a hill in Wyoming could fetch $750,000 we don’t know. However, it would be a cool property to finish if you had the cash burning a hole in your pocket.

If you like Smith Mansion, then check out Goose Creek Tower. Goose Creek Tower was built in much the same way, however, the owner still hasn’t finished it.


Francis Lightfoot Lee

Francis Lightfoot Lee was a Virginian delegate to the second Continental Congress, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation, and served on the Virginia House of Burgesses.

Early Life & Education

Francis Lightfoot Lee was born October 14, 1734 in Virginia, the fourth son of Thomas Lee and Hannah Ludwell. His family is descended from one of the first British families to land in Virginia.

Both his parents died in 1750, leaving Francis, also called Frank, in the care of his older brother, who decided Francis would be a farmer requiring no formal education. Although his older brothers were educated in England, Frank and his younger brother were homeschooled he took a particular interest in science. In spite of his mediocre education, he took an interest in local politics, studied hard, and learned the rest by observing his older brothers.

Política

Francis Lightfoot Lee, Virginian signer of the Declaration of Independence
Public domain image.

Francis Lightfoot Lee was a political radical, strongly against the Stamp Act. He served in the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1758 along with 2 of his brothers one of which signed the Declaration of Independence) and 2 cousins. His only legislative contribution was to draft a bill allowing residents in Loudon County to pay their taxes in trade goods rather than money. He was among those who called for a congress of delegates from all 13 colonies.

He served until 1768, after which, in 1769, he married Rebecca Tayloe, his second cousin, about whom little is known. The pair never had any children, but they did raise Frank’s 2 nieces as their own. He received as a wedding gift a tract of land which he began to develop while still dabbling in politics, even serving as a justice of the peace for a while.

In 1774, he was very active in fighting for the first Virginia Convention. His political activism earned him the title of delegate to the Second Continental Congress, along with his brother Richard Lee. It was during this time that Lord Dunmore, the Royal Governor of Virginia offered slaves their freedom if they fought for England. This tipped Francis Lightfoot Lee over the edge and he determined that full independence from Britain was America’s only option. He is a signer of both the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation (pre-Constitution). He is not known to have spoken during Congressional debates.

Controversy

During his second term in Congress, his family underwent a huge political attack from enemies who would see the Lees’ influence lessened. These attacks only worsened during his third term when Silas Deane (diplomat who served with John Adams and Benjamin Franklin in France) began accusing the Lees of treason and corruption. Francis Lightfoot Lee and Richard Henry Lee, exhausted from these highly personal attacks which lasted about 2 years, resigned from Congress in 1779.

Final Years

He served in the Virginia Senate for several years before retiring. He lived his whole life in Virginia and watched all of his brothers die before he himself died on January 17, 1797, ten days after his beloved Rebecca.


Francis Lightfoot Lee

Francis Lightfoot, the subject of the present memoir, was perhaps not less distinguished, although he had not the advantages, which were enjoyed by the eldersons, of an education at the English universities. His advantages, however, were not of a moderate character. He was placed under the care of a domestic tutor of the name of Craig, a gentleman distinguished for his love of letters, and for his ability to impart useful knowledge to those of whom he had the care. Under such a man, the powers of Francis Lightfoot rapidly unfolded. He acquired an early fondness for reading and mental investigation, and became well acquainted with the various branches of science and literature.

The fortune bequeathed him by his father rendered the study of a profession unnecessary. He, therefore, devoted himself for several years to reading, and to the enjoyment of his friends. He was a man, however, in whom dwelt the spirit of the patriot, and who could not well be neglected, nor could he well neglect his country, when the political troubles of the colonies began.

In 1765, he was returned a member of the house of burgesses from the county of Loudon, where his estate was situated. In this situation, he proved himself to be a gentleman of strong good sense and discriminating judgment and to this office he was annnally re-elected until 1772 when having become connected by marriage with a daughter of Colonel John Tayloe, of the county of Richmond, he removed to that county, the citizens of which soon after elected him a member o[ the house of burgesses.

In 1775, Mr. Lee was chosen a member of the continental congress, by the Virginia convention. This was an eventful period in the annals of America. It was the year in which was shed the first blood in the revolutionary struggle. It was emphatically the year of "clouds and darkness," in which indeed the hope of better days was indulged, but in which, notwithstanding this hope, "men's souls were tried."

Mr. Lee continued a member of congress until the spring of 1779. During his attendance upon this body, he seldom took part in the public discussions, but few surpassed him in his warmth of patriotism, and in his zeal to urge forward those measures which contributed to the success of the American arms, and the independence of the country. To his brother, Richard Henry Lee, the high honour was allotted of bringing forward the momentous question of independence, and to him, and his associates in that distinguished assembly, the not inferior honour was granted of aiding and supporting and finishing this important work.

This seclusion, however, he was not permitted long to enioy. The internal condition of Virginia, at this time, was one of much agitation and perplexity. His fellow citizens, justly appreciating the value of such a man, summoned him by their suffrages to represent them in the legislature of Virginia. Although reluctantly, he obeyed the summons, and took his seat in that body. He was fond of ease, and of the pleasures of domestic life still he was conscious of his obligations, and most faithfully discharged them. While a member of the continental congress, he had been characterized for integrity, sound judgment, and love of country. In his present office, he was distinguished for the same virtues.

He could not content himself, however, long in this situation. He became wearied with the duties of public life and at length, relinquished them for the pleasures of retirement.

In this latter course of life, he not only enjoyed himself highly, but contributed greatly to the happiness of many around him. The benevolence of his disposition, and the urbanity of his manners, recommended him both to the old and the young, to the gay and the grave. The poor shared in his benevolence and advice. In his intercourse with his particular friends, he was uncommonly pleasing and instructive.

Mr. Lee, having no children to require his care and attention, devoted much of his time to the pleasures of reading, farming, and the company of his friends. His death was occasioned by a pleurisy, which disease about the same time, also, attacked his beloved wife, and terminated the life of both, within a few days of each other. It is said, that he had embraced the religion of the gospel, and that under its supporting hope and consolation, he made his exit in peace from the world.


Lee, Francis - History

Westmoreland County, Virginia

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Biografias


Francis Lightfoot Lee

Francis Lightfoot Lee was born on October 14, 1734 in Westmoreland County Virginia at the Stratford Hall Plantation. He was the Son of Honorable/Colonel Thomas Lee (1690-1750) and Hannah Harrison Ludwell Lee (1701-1750), and brother of Richard Henry Lee, William Lee, Dr. Arthur Lee, and Thomas Ludwell Lee. He was born in to one of the First Families of Virginia, and of English descent. He was tutored by private tutors in his home, growing up. He married Rebecca Plater Tayloe (1751-1797), the daughter of Col John Tayloe II and Rebecca Plater Tayloe. Francis Lightfoot Lee died in Richmond County Virginia at his home "Menokin" on January 11 1797. He is buried at Mount Airy Plantation, his wife's family graveyard, near Warsaw Virginia. He was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses, and served from 1765-1775. He sided with Patrick Henry in opposing the Stamp Act. He served from 1778-1782 in the Virginia State Senate, and served until 1779 as a delegate to the first Continental Congress.


Francis Lightfoot Lee
The fourth son of Thomas and Hannah (Ludwell) Lee, was born October 14, 1734, in Westmoreland county, province of Virginia, and was named Francis Lightfoot Lee. He received his education at home under the tuition of a Scotch clergyman named Craig, and having at his command a valuable library collected by his father, afterward the property of the oldest son of the family, Philip. About the time he reached manhood his three older brothers, Philip, Thomas and Richard Henry, returned from abroad, where they had been educated, and in their society he attained that polish and refinement of manner which was in after life one of his distinguishing characteristics,
In 1765, Francis Lightfoot Lee took his seat in the House of Burgesses, as member from Loudoun County, in which county he was possessed of a considerable estate. He continued a member of the House for Loudoun County until 1772. In that year he married Rebecca, second daughter of Colonel John Taylor, of Richmond county, and took up his residence in that county. In the same year he was returned to the House of Burgesses for Richmond County. August 15, 1775, the convention of Virginia elected him to a seat in the Continental Congress, which position he filled so as to receive three successive re-elections: June 20, 1776 May 22, 1777 May 29, 1778.
His work in Congress, faithfully performed, was not of the brilliant character of his elder brother's work, as he was no orator. But when future generations remember the name of Richard Henry Lee, as that of the gallant Virginian whose voice was first raised in advocacy of our independence, it will not be forgotten that among the devoted sons of that State who supported his position was one, his brother in blood, and his colleague in principle, Francis Lightfoot Lee.
In the spring of 1779, Mr. Lee retired from Congress, and was immediately elected to the Senate of Virginia under the new constitution of that State. He did not long remain in public life, however, all his inclinations being toward home life and rural occupations, and the state of the country no longer demanding from him the sacrifice of his private tastes. Reading, farming, and the entertainment of friends and neighbors filled his remaining days with quiet happiness, until his death, which occurred in April, 1797. His beloved wife died within a few days of his own demise, and they left no children. [Source: Virginia and Virginians: History of Volume 2 by Robert Alonzo Brock, Virgil Anson Lewis publ. 1888 transcribed by Andrea Stawski Pack]

Richard Henry Lee

Richard Henry Lee was born on January 20, 1732 in the Colony of Virginia, Westmoreland County. He was the son of the Honorable/Colonel Thomas Lee (1690-1750) and Hannah Harrison Ludwell (1701-1750). He was educated at the Queen Elizabeth Grammar School. He returned to Virginia where he would practice law. Richard H Lee was appointed Justice of the Peace for Westmoreland County Virginia in 1757. He was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1758. He was chosen as a delegate to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1774.Lee motioned to the Continental Congress to declare the independence of the United States from Great Britain, in "Lee's Resolution" on June 07, 1776. Richard H Lee was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. For one year, he served as the President of the Continental Congress. He also was a United States Senator from Virginia during the years of 1789-1792.
Richard Henry Lee died on June 19, 1794. (Submitted by FOGT)

Richard Henry Lee was born in Virginia, in 1732. Of his childhood and youth there is nothing special to record, except that he was sent to England to acquire an education. In early manhood he took a prominent part in the political agitations of those troublous times. His strong and patriotic heart, aided by a thorough classical education, gave him the position of a leader. To him has been ascribed the first regular attempt at resistance to British aggression though that point is not clear. In 1773, as a Member of the House of Burgesses of Virginia, he proposed the formation of that famous "Committee of Correspondence," whose investigations and appeals roused, not only the hearts of Virginia, but of the whole country.
On the assembling of the first Congress, Richard Henry Lee was there to represent the burghers of his own Virginia, to act and to work in the glorious cause to which he and his coadjutors "pledged their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honors."
He was among the foremost who went for an open and explicit declaration of independence and the clear, strong, and patriotic views he so vehemently urged before that body, did much to strengthen the timid and irresolute, and to confirm the doubtful in their patriotism. He introduced that immortal resolution, "That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown and that all political connection between them and Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved." When the committee formed to draft the Declaration of Independence was appointed, Mr. Lee was in Virginia on account of sickness in his family, and thus Mr. Jefferson was placed at the head of that committee, which honor belonged, of right, to him, as the mover of the resolution. His name, however, stands among the signers of that immortal instrument. Mr. Lee resumed his seat in Congress the next month, and continued to occupy it until 1779, when ill health compelled him to decline the honor, till 1784, when he reluctantly consented to serve again. On taking his seat, he was unanimously called upon to preside, which he did with great dignity and to the entire satisfaction of that body. In 1792 Mr. Leo retired altogether from public life, and two years after, his exhausted powers sank into the repose of death on the 19th of June, 1794.
The name of Richard Henry Lee stands among the highest on the scroll of his country's fame. As a patriot, as a man, as a friend, and as an orator, he had few equals. His enemies were few, while his friends were many and he went to his rest with the blessings of the multitude resting on his monument. (Source: Biographies of 250 Distinguished National Men by Horatio Bateman. Published 1871. Submitted by L. Rodriguez)

Richard Henry Lee
Richard Henry Lee, a descendant from an ancient and distinguished family hi Virginia, was born in Westmoreland county, of that province, on the twentieth of January, 1732. As the schools of the country for many years furnished but few advantages for an education, those who were able to meet the expense, were accustomed to send their sons abroad for instruction. At a proper age, young Lee was sent to a flourishing school, then existing at Wakesfield, in the county of Yorkshire, England. The talents which he possessed, industriously employed under the guidance of respectable tutors, rendered his literary acquisitions easy and rapid and in a few years he returned to his native country, with a mind well stored with scientific and classical knowledge. For several years following his return to America, he continued his studies with persevering industry greatly adding to the stock of knowledge which he had gained abroad, by which he was still more eminently fitted for the conspicuous part he was destined to act in the approaching revolutionary struggle of his country. About the year 1757, Mr. Lee was called to a seat in the House of Burgesses. For several years, however, he made but au indifferent figure, either as an orator or the leader of a party, owing, it is said, to a natural diffidence, which prevented him from displaying those powers with which he was gifted, or exercising that influence to which he was entitled This impediment, however, was gradually removed what he rapidly rose into notice, and became conspicuous as a political leader in his country, and highly distinguished for a natural, easy, and at the same time impressive eloquence.
In the year 1765, Patrick Henry proposed the celebrated resolutions against the stamp act, noticed in the preceding sketch of the life of Mr. Wythe. During the debate on these resolutions, Mr. Lee arrived at the seat of government, soon after which he entered with great spirit into the debate, and powerfully assisted in carrying these resolutions through the house, in opposition to the timidity of some, and the mistaken judgment of others. The above strong and spirited resolutions served, as has already been noticed in a former page, to rouse the energies of the Americans, and to concentrate that feeling, which was spending itself without obtaining any important object. Not long after the above resolutions were carried, Mr. Lee presented to his fellow citizens the plan of an association, the object of which was an effectual resistance to the arbitrary power of the mother country, which was manifesting itself in various odious forms and especially in that detestable measure, the stamp act. The third article of the constitution of this association will show the patriotic and determined spirit which prevailed in the county of Westmoreland, the people of which generally united in the association. "As the stamp act does absolutely direct the property of people to be taken from them, without their consent, expressed by their representatives, and as in many cases it deprives the British American subject of his right to be tried by jury, we do determine, at every hazard, and paying no regard to death, to exert every faculty to prevent the execution of the stamp act, in every instance, within the colony."
The influence of this association, and of other associations «f a similar kind, rendered the execution of the stamp act difficult, and even impossible. It was a measure to which the Americans would not submit and the ministry of Great Britain were reluctantly forced to repeal it. To Mr. Lee, as well as to his countrymen, the removal of the stamp act was an occasion of no small joy but the clause accompanying the repealing act, which declared the power of parliament to bind the colonies in all cases whatever, was a dark cloud, which in a measure obscured the brightness of the prospect, and foreboded an approaching storm.
In the year 1773, Mr. Lee brought forward in the Virginia house of burgesses his celebrated plan for the formation of a committee of correspondence, whose object was to disseminate information, and to kindle the flame of liberty, throughout the continent or, in other language, "to watch the conduct of the British parliament, to spread more widely correct information on topics connected with the interests of the colonies, and to form a closer union of the men of influence in each.”The honor of having first established corresponding" societies is claimed both by Massachusetts and Virginia the former placing the merit to the account of her distinguished patriot, Samuel Adams and the latter assigning it to Richard Henry Lee. It is probable, however, that each of these distinguished men are entitled to equal honor, in respect to originating a plan which contributed, more than most others, to a unity of sentiment and harmony of action among the different leaders in the respective colonies. Without concert between them, each of these individuals seems to have introduced the plan, about the same period, to the legislatures of their respective colonies. It is certain, however, that in respect to Mr. Lee, the plan of these corresponding societies was not the result of a few days reflection only. It had occupied his thoughts for several years had been there forming and maturing, and, at length, was proposed and adopted, to the infinite advantage of the cause of liberty in the country.
Of the distinguished congress which met at Philadelphia in 1774, Mr. Lee was a delegate from Virginia, with Washington and Henry. In the deliberations of this celebrated body, Mr. Lee acted a conspicuous part, and served on several committees and to his pen is attributed the memorial, which the continental congress authorized, to the people of British America. In the following year, Mr. Lee received the unanimous suffrage of the district in which he resided to the assembly of Virginia, by which he was deputed to represent the colony in the second congress, which was to meet on the tenth of May of that year at the same time, he received an expression of the thanks of the assembly, "for his cheerful undertaking, and faithful discharge of the trust reposed in him, during the session of the last congress."
On the meeting of this second congress, it was apparent that all hope of peace and reconciliation with the mother country was at an end. Indeed, hostilities had actually commenced the busy note of preparation was heard in all the land. Washington was summoned by the unanimous voice of congress to the command of the American armies and his commission and instructions it fell to Mr. Lee to furnish, &s the chairman of a committee appointed for that purpose. During the same session, also, he was placed on committees which were appointed to the important duties of preparing munitions of war, encouraging the manufacture of salt-petre and arms, and for devising a plan for the more rapid communication of intelligence throughout the colonies.
The period had now arrived, when the thoughts of the American people were turned, in solemn earnest, to the great subject of American independence. Most of the colonies were already prepared to hail with joy a measure which should declare to the world their determination to be accounted a free and independent people. Most of the provincial assemblies had published resolutions in favor of such a declaration, and had even instructed their delegates to urge upon congress the importance and necessity of this decisive step. Mr. Lee was selected to move the resolution in congress on this great subject. This he did on the seventh of June, 1776, in the following words: "That these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved." The motion, thus introduced by Mr. Lee, he followed by one of the most luminous and eloquent speeches ever delivered, either by himself or any other gentleman, on the floor of congress. "Why then, sir," (said he, in conclusion,) "why do we longer delay? Why still deliberate? Let this happy day give birth to an American republic. Let her arise, not to devastate and to conquer, but to re-establish the reign of peace and of law. The eyes of Europe are fixed upon us she demands of us a living example of freedom that may exhibit a contrast in the felicity of the citizen to the ever increasing tyranny which desolates her polluted shores. She invites us to prepare an asylum, where the unhappy may find solace, and the persecuted repose. She entreats us to cultivate a propitious soil, where that generous plant which first sprung and grew in England, but is now withered by the poisonous blasts of Scottish tyranny, may revive and flourish, sheltering under its salubrious and interminable shade, all the unfortunate of the human race. If we are not this day wanting in our duty, the names of the American legislators of 1776 will be placed by posterity at the side of Theses, Lycurgus, and Romulus, of the three Williams of Nassau, and of all those whose memory has been, and ever will be, dear to virtuous men and good citizens."
The debate on the above motion of Mr. Lee was protracted until the tenth of June, on which day congress resolved: "that the consideration of the resolution respecting independence be postponed till the first Monday in July next and, in the mean while, that no time be lost, in case the congress agree thereto, that a committee be appointed to prepare a declaration to the effect of the said resolution."
On the day on which this resolution was taken, Mr. Lee was unexpectedly summoned to attend upon his family in Virginia, some of the members of which were at that time dangerously ill. As the mover of the original resolution for independence, it would, according to parliamentary usage, have devolved upon Mr. Lee to have been appointed chairman of the committee selected to prepare a declaration, and, as chairman, to have furnished that important document. In the absence of Mr. Lee, however, Mr. Jefferson was elected to that honor, by whom it was drawn up with singular energy of style and argument.
In the following month, Mr. Lee resumed his seat in congress, in which body he continued till June, 1777, during which period he continued the same round of active exertions for the welfare of his country. It was his fortune, however, as well as the fortune of others, to have enemies, who charged him with disaffection to his country, and attachment to Great Britain. The ground upon which this charge was made, was, that contrary to his former practice, previously to the war, he received the rents of his tenants in the produce of their farms, instead of colonial money, which had now become greatly depreciated. This accusation, though altogether unjust, and unwarrantable, at length gained so much credit, that the name of Mr. Lee was omitted by the assembly, in their list of delegates to congress. This gave him an opportunity, and furnished him with a motive, to demand of the assembly an inquiry into the nature of the allegations against him. The inquiry resulted in an entire acquittal, and in an expression of thanks to Mr. Lee, which was conveyed, on the part of the house, by their speaker, Mr. Wythe, in the following language - "It is with peculiar pleasure, sir, that I obey this command of the house, because it gives me an opportunity, while I am performing an act of duty to them, to perform an act of justice to yourself.
Serving with you in congress, and attentively observing your conduct there, I thought that you manifested, in the American cause, a zeal truly patriotic and as far as I could judge, exerted the abilities for which you are confessedly distinguished, to promote the good and prosperity of your own country in particular, and of the United States in general. That the tribute of praise deserved, may reward those who do well, and encourage others to follow your example, the house have come to this resolution: that the thanks of this house be given by the speaker to Richard Henry Lee, for the faithful services he has rendered his country, in discharge of his duty, as one of the delegates from this state in general congress."
At a subsequent period, Mr. Lee was again elected a delegate to congress 'but during the session of 1778 and 1779, in consequence of ill health, he was obliged frequently to absent himself from the arduous duties which devolved upon him, and which he could no longer sustain. From this time until 1784, Mr. Lee declined accepting a seat in congress, from a belief that he might be more useful to his native state, by holding a seat in her assembly. In this latter year, however, the people of Virginia again honored him, by appointing him one of her representatives to congress, of which body he was unanimously elected president. In this exalted station he presided with great ability and on the expiration of his time of service, he received the thanks of congress for his able and faithful discharge of the duties of president, while acting in that station."
To the adoption of the federal constitution without amendment, although not a member of the convention which discussed its merits, he was strongly opposed. The tendency of the constitution, he apprehended, was to consolidation. To guard against this, it was his wish that the respective states should impart to the federal head only so much power as was necessary for mutual safety and happiness. Under the new constitution, Mr. Lee was appointed the first senator from Virginia in the exercise of which office, he offered several amendments to the constitution, from the adoption of which he hoped to lessen the danger to the country, which he had apprehended.
About the year 1792, Mr. Lee, enfeebled by his long attention to public duties, and by the infirmities of age, retired to the enjoyment of his family and friends. Not long after, he had the pleasure of receiving from the senate and house of delegates of Virginia, the following unanimous vote of thanks: "Resolved, unanimously, that the speaker be desired to convey to Richard Henry Lee, the respects of the senate that they sincerely sympathize with him in those infirmities, which have deprived their country of his valuable services and that they ardently wish he may, in his retirement, with uninterrupted happiness, close the evening of a life, in which he hath so conspicuously shone forth as a statesman and a patriot that while mindful of his many exertions to promote the public interests, they are particularly thankful for his conduct as a member of the legislature of the United States."
The life of Mr. Lee was continued until the nineteenth of June, 1794, when he breathed his last, at the age of sixty three years.
Few men, in any age or in any country, have shone with greater brilliancy, or have left a more desirable name, than Richard Henry Lee. Both in public and private life, he had few equals. In his public career, he was distinguished for no common ardor and disinterestedness. As an orator, he exercised an uncommon sway over the minds of men. His manners were perfectly graceful, and his language universally chaste. "Although somewhat monotonous, his speeches," says a writer, "were always pleasing, yet he did not ravish your senses, nor carry away your judgment by storm. His was the mediate class of eloquence, described by Roll in his belles lettres. He was like a beautiful river, meandering through flowery mead but which never overflowed its banks. It was Henry who was the mountain torrent that swept away every thing before it it was he alone, who thundered and lightened he alone attained that sublime species of eloquence, also mentioned by Rollin."
In private life, Mr. Lee was justly the delight of all who knew him. He had a numerous family of children, the offspring of two marriages, who were eminently devoted to their father, who in his turn delighted to administer to their innocent enjoyments, and to witness the expansion of their intellectual powers.
We conclude this hasty sketch, with the following account of Mr. Lee, from the flowing pen of the author of the life of Patrick Henry.—" Mr. Lee," says he, "had studied the classics in the true spirit of criticism. His taste had that delicate touch, which seized with intuitive certainty every beauty of an author, and his genius that native affinity, which combined them without an effort. Into every walk of literature and science, he had carried his mind of exquisite selection, and brought it back to the business of life, crowned with every light of learning, and decked with every wreath that the muses and all the graces could entwine. Nor did light decorations constitute the whole value of its freight. He possessed a rich store of political knowledge, with an activity of observation, and a certainty of judgment, which turned that knowledge to the very best account.
He was not a lawyer by profession, but he understood thoroughly the constitution both of the mother country and of her colonies, and the elements, also, of the civil and municipal law. Thus, while his eloquence was free from those stiff and technical restraints, which the habit of forensic speaking are so apt to generate, he had all the legal learning which is necessary to a statesman. He reasoned well, and declaimed freely and splendidly. The note of his voice was deep and melodious. It was the canorous voice of Cicero. He had lost the use of one of his hands, which he kept constantly covered with a black silk bandage, neatly fitted to the palm of his hand, but leaving his thumb free yet, notwithstanding this disadvantage, his gesture was so graceful and highly finished, that it was said he had acquired it by practicing before a mirror. Such was his promptitude, that he required no preparation for debate. He was ready for any subject, as soon as it was announced, and his speech was so copious, so rich, so mellifluous, set off with such bewitching cadence of voice, and such captivating grace of action, that while you listened to him, you desired to hear nothing superior and, indeed, thought him perfect. He had quick sensibility and a fervid imagination." [Source: Lives of the Signers to the Declaration of independence By Charles Augustus Goodrich Publ. 1829 Pages 364-422 Transcribed by Andrea Stawski Pack]

General Robert E. Lee

General Robert E. Lee, son of Harry Lee, of Revolutionary fame, was born at the family seat of Strafford, Virginia, in 1806.
He received a liberal education, was admitted to the military academy at West Point in 1825, and, on the 30th of June, 1829, graduated second in his class.. He entered the Engineer Corps as Second Lieutenant, in July of that year was promoted to First Lieutenancy, September 21 1836 and to Captaincy, July 7, 1838. He served in the Mexican War as Chief-Engineer in General Wool's command, and was breveted Major, LieutenantColonel, and Colonel, for gallant conduct at Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Churubusco, and Chapultepec.
In July, 1848, he was appointed a member of the Board of Engineers at West Point, and, September 1, 1S52, was made Superintendent of the military academy, which position he held until March 8,18o5, when he received his full commission of Lieutenant-Colonel of the Second Cavalry.
In 1809 he commanded the company of marines that captured John Brown at Harper's Ferry, and, on the 16th of March, 1861, was promoted to the Colonelcy of the First Cavalry.
On the 20th of April, 1861, he resigned his commission in the United States army, and was appointed Major-General by the State of Virginia, and afterward General in the Confederate army. In August, 1861, he was assigned to a command in West Virginia. His first engagement was at Cheat Mountain, where he was defeated by General Reynolds. He then proceeded to the Kanawha region for the purpose of relieving Floyd and Wise. In December he was transferred to the defenses of South Carolina and Georgia.
When General J. E. Johnston was wounded at the battle of Seven Pines, June 1, 1862, General Lee succeeded to the command of the Rebel army in Virginia, and, after being reinforced by General "Stonewall" Jackson's corps, took the offensive. The initial movement to the seven days battles were planned by him, and the battle of Malvern Hill was fought under his personal direction. When he was satisfied that General McClellan's army had been withdrawn from the Peninsula, he transferred the main body of the Rebel army to act against Pope, which resulted in the battles of Manassas, August 29,1862, and that of Chantilly, which was fought while the National forces were in retreat for the defenses of Washington.
General Lee then prepared for the invasion of Maryland, which resulted in his defeat at Antietam. He was afterward engaged in the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, in which he defeated or repulsed the Union forces. In June, 1863, he made a second invasion of the North, when, after destroying much public property, and obtaining immense stores of goods, he concentrated his forces at Gettysburg, and fought the bloody battle at that place, which ended in his defeat, July 3, 1863. Thus both his invasions of the North proved failures. In both cases, however, he extricated himself from these critical situations with extraordinary skill and dexterity.
In 1864, when General Grant took command of the Army of the Potomac, Leo concentrated his forces around Richmond, and, acting on the defensive, contested every inch of ground as he retreated toward that city, until he was at last forced to surrender at Appomattox Court-House to General Grant, April 9, 1865. General Leo was appointed General-in-Chief of the Rebel forces, January 31, 1865, and attained a military reputation second to none in the Southern army. On the close of the war he was elected to the position of President of Washington College, Lexington, Va., where ha resided until his death, which occurred October 12, 1870. (Source: Biographies of 250 Distinguished National Men by Horatio Bateman. Published 1871)


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