Ballard II DD- 267 - História

Ballard II DD- 267 - História

Ballard II

(DD-267: dp. 1215; 1. 314'4 "; b. 31'8"; dr. 9'10 "; s. 35
k .; colt 122; uma. 4 4 ", 1 3", 12 21 "TT .; cl. Clemson)

O segundo Ballard (DD-267) foi lançado em 7 de dezembro de 1918 pela Bethlehem Steel Corp., Squantum, Mass .; patrocinado pela Srta. Eloise Ballard; comissionado em 5 de junho de 1919, o Tenente Comandante h 'M. Collier no comando; e reportado à Frota do Atlântico.

Entre julho de 1919 e julho de 1920, Ballard viajou por vários portos na Europa e no Mediterrâneo. Ela voltou aos Estados Unidos em julho de 1920 e serviu por um tempo na Frota do Atlântico. Ela então seguiu para o Pacífico, onde realizou treinamento de tipo e participou de manobras de frota até ser colocada fora de serviço na reserva em San Diego em 17 de junho de 1922.

Em 25 de junho de 1940, Ballard foi colocado em comissão ordinária e foi rebocado para Union Yard da Bethlehem Steel Corp., San Francisco, para conversão em um leilão de hidroavião auxiliar (reclassificado AVD 10, 2 de agosto de 1940). Ela foi colocada em plena comissão em 2 de janeiro de 1941 e relatada à Aeronaves, Força de Escotismo, Frota do Pacífico.

Com a entrada dos Estados Unidos na Segunda Guerra Mundial, Ballard rumou para Pearl Harbor, onde chegou em 28 de janeiro de 1942. até novembro de 1943, ela estava empenhada em cuidar de aviões de patrulha, colocar bóias de aeronaves, escoltar comboios e patrulhar todo o Pacífico Oriental (Phoenix, Midway, Fiji, Espiritu Santo, (Guadalcanal Flórida e Nova Caledônia). Retornando a São Francisco em 7 de novembro, ela completou os reparos em 30 de dezembro de 1943 e, em seguida, atuou como guarda de avião durante as operações de qualificação de porta-aviões, ao largo de San Diego, até maio de 1944.

Entre 15 de junho e 3 de julho de 1944, ela participou da operação Saipan, colocando bóias de aeronaves e cuidando do primeiro esquadrão de patrulha a operar na área. Em seguida, ela desempenhou funções de patrulha durante a apreensão das Ilhas Palau (12 de setembro a 11 de dezembro de 1944).

No final de dezembro de 1944, ela começou outro período no pátio dos Estados Unidos, em Seattle. Após a conclusão dos reparos, ela foi mais uma vez designada para as funções de guarda de avião, operando fora de San Diego até 1º de outubro de 1945. Ballard chegou à Filadélfia em 26 de outubro de 1945 para iniciar a revisão da pré-inativação. Ela foi desativada em 5 de dezembro de 1946 e vendida em 23 de maio de 1946.

Ballard recebeu duas estrelas de batalha por seu serviço durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial.


O naufrágio americano da segunda guerra mundial descoberto no mar das Filipinas é o mais profundo já encontrado

Os destroços de um contratorpedeiro da Segunda Guerra Mundial nos EUA foram encontrados. Uma equipe de pesquisa descobriu o navio afundado a mais de 20 mil pés abaixo da superfície do mar das Filipinas. Os especialistas acreditam que é o USS Johnston, que naufragou após uma batalha com as forças militares japonesas.

O naufrágio mais profundo já descoberto foi encontrado no Mar das Filipinas, anunciaram os pesquisadores na quarta-feira.

Os destroços do destróier da Segunda Guerra Mundial dos EUA foram encontrados descansando a uma profundidade de 20.406 pés por especialistas no navio de pesquisa Petrel. Os exploradores usaram um drone submarino para localizar o misterioso navio, que se acredita ser o USS Johnston, um contratorpedeiro classe Fletcher afundado durante a Batalha de Samar, uma ação-chave na Batalha do Golfo de Leyte em 1944. Imagens misteriosas capturadas pelo drone mostra os destroços mutilados do navio no fundo do mar.

Research Vessel Petrel (R / V Petrel) faz parte da Vulcan Inc., uma organização de pesquisa criada pelo falecido co-fundador da Microsoft, Paul Allen.

Especialistas acreditam que o navio provavelmente seja o USS Johnston do que o USS Hoel, outro contratorpedeiro que naufragou na batalha de Samar.

O naufrágio do destróier da Segunda Guerra Mundial dos EUA foi encontrado no mar das Filipinas. (Vulcan Inc.)

“Acreditamos que este naufrágio seja o do USS Johnston DD-557”, disse Robert Kraft, diretor de operações submarinas da Vulcan, em um comunicado. “Não há evidências do esquema de pintura deslumbrante, indicativo do USS Hoel e sua localização sugere que este naufrágio afundou mais tarde na batalha, após a perda do Hoel.”

O USS Johnston afundou em 25 de outubro de 1944, após uma batalha feroz com as forças japonesas, pela qual ela foi premiada com a Menção de Unidade Presidencial. Da tripulação do navio de 341, apenas 141 sobreviveram, de acordo com o Comando de História e Patrimônio Naval. “Dos 186 perdidos, cerca de 50 foram mortos por ação inimiga, 45 morreram em jangadas de ferimentos de batalha e 92, incluindo [o comandante Ernest] Evans, estavam vivos na água depois que Johnston afundou, mas nunca mais se ouviu falar dele”, explica o Comando de História e Patrimônio Naval, em seu site.

A equipe de exploração da R / V Petrel espera que a descoberta do navio traga uma sensação de fechamento para as famílias dos marinheiros que perderam suas vidas no USS Johnston.

Acredita-se que o navio seja o USS Johnston, um contratorpedeiro classe Fletcher afundado durante a Batalha de Samar. (Vulcan Inc.)

RV Petrel conhece bem as descobertas de naufrágios. No início deste ano, por exemplo, especialistas do navio de pesquisa descobriram os destroços do porta-aviões da Segunda Guerra Mundial USS Wasp no Mar de Coral, mais de 70 anos depois que o navio foi afundado durante a campanha de Guadalcanal.

Também em 2019, pesquisadores a bordo do RV Petrel descobriram um dos primeiros navios de guerra japoneses a ser afundado pelas forças dos EUA durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. O navio Hiei da Marinha Imperial Japonesa naufragou em 14 de novembro de 1942, nas Ilhas Salomão.

O naufrágio foi encontrado descansando a uma profundidade de 20.406 pés. (Vulcan Inc.)

Paul Allen morreu em outubro de 2018 de complicações de linfoma não Hodgkin. Sua organização de pesquisa descobriu uma série de naufrágios militares históricos, como os destroços do USS Helena, USS Lexington e USS Juneau.

O naufrágio é o mais profundo já descoberto, dizem os pesquisadores. (Vulcan Inc.)

A maior descoberta do grupo, no entanto, veio em 2017, quando Allen e sua equipe encontraram o naufrágio há muito perdido do USS Indianápolis no mar das Filipinas.

Bradford Betz da Fox News e a Associated Press contribuíram para este artigo.


Para: Força-Tarefa 67

Acreditamos que o inimigo sem dúvida sofreu uma derrota esmagadora. Agradecemos ao Almirante Kinkaid por sua intervenção ontem. Agradecemos a Lee por seu grande esforço na noite passada. Nossa própria aeronave tem sido grande em seu martelar implacável sobre o inimigo. Todos esses esforços são apreciados, mas nossa maior homenagem vai para Callaghan, Scott e seus homens que com coragem magnífica contra todas as probabilidades aparentemente sem esperança repeliram o primeiro ataque hostil e pavimentaram o caminho para o sucesso que se seguiria. Para eles, os homens de Cactus erguem seus capacetes surrados com a mais profunda admiração.

ALEXANDER A. VANDEGRIFT
General, Fuzileiros Navais dos EUA

Barton partiu de Nova York em 23 de agosto, acompanhando Washington (BB 56) com Nicholas e Meade, transitou pelo Canal do Panamá em 27 de agosto e chegou a Tongatabu, nas Ilhas de Tonga, em 13 de setembro. Atribuído à Força-Tarefa 17 com DesRon 2, (Sims- destruidores de classe Morris, Anderson, Hughes, Mustin e Russell), ela examinou o porta-aviões Hornet (CV 8) em uma invasão abortada em Buin, Faisi e Tonolai nas Ilhas Shortland, 5 de outubro. Ela ainda fazia parte de Hornet& rsquos escolta durante a Batalha das Ilhas de Santa Cruz, 26 de outubro, quando Hornet estava perdido.

Barton& rsquos baixas na Batalha de Guadalcanal.

Fonte: Relatório de acidentes do Bureau of Personnel, NARA.

Em 29 de outubro, ela resgatou dezessete sobreviventes de dois aviões de transporte aéreo abatidos perto da Ilha Fabre.

Em 12 de novembro de 1942, Barton ajudou a escoltar transportes para Guadalcanal e rsquos Ironbottom Sound. Depois da meia-noite, ela era a 11ª na fila entre cinco cruzadores e sete outros destróieres (DesRon 12 e rsquos Aaron Ward, Laffey e Monssen mais goldplaters Cushing e Sterett e 2.100 toneladas O & rsquoBannon e Fletcher) como contra-almirante Daniel J. Callaghan & rsquos Task Group 67.4 interceptou uma força japonesa muito mais forte liderada por navios de guerra Hiei e Kirishima.

EM HOMENAGEM AOS QUE LUTAM NA BATALHA DO GUADALCANAL
13 de novembro de 1942

Aos soberbos oficiais e homens no mar, na terra, no ar e no fundo do mar que nos últimos cinco dias realizaram feitos tão magníficos por nosso país. Você conquistou a eterna gratidão de seu país e escreveu nossos nomes em letras douradas nas páginas da história. Nenhuma honra para você poderia ser muito grande, meu orgulho em você é indescritível. Feito magnificamente. Que Deus abençoe cada um de vocês. Para os gloriosos mortos, saudem os heróis e que todos vocês descansem com Deus.

WILLIAM F. HALSEY
Almirante, Marinha dos EUA

Nesta Primeira Batalha Naval de Guadalcanal, Barton lançou quatro torpedos antes de recuar totalmente para evitar a colisão. Dois torpedos de um contratorpedeiro inimigo a atingiram antes que ela pudesse partir novamente - um em sua sala de bombeiros e o outro, quase imediatamente, em sua sala de máquinas.

Barton rapidamente se partiu em dois e afundou com a perda da maioria de sua tripulação, incluindo LCdr. Raposa. Apenas 42 sobreviventes foram apanhados mais tarde por um cruzador pesado Portland (CA 33) outros foram resgatados por barcos Higgins de Guadalcanal.

Em 1992, uma expedição liderada pelo Dr. Robert Ballard localizou Barton& rsquos proa a sudeste da ilha de Savo, apoiada a bombordo a mais de 2.000 pés de água com os dois canhões de 5 polegadas ainda apontados para bombordo. A seção da popa do navio não foi descoberta.

Barton ganhou quatro estrelas de batalha em menos de dois meses nas Ilhas Salomão.


Provação perigosa de Leyte

Quando o USS Reid (DD-369) afundou durante um ataque kamikaze enquanto escoltava um comboio de reabastecimento, ela levou metade de sua tripulação com ela. Para muitos dos homens a bordo dos navios e escoltas do comboio, o ataque em Ormoc Bay, nas Ilhas Filipinas, foi o primeiro contato com o inimigo, e foi um batismo de fogo rápido, furioso e mortal. No entanto, o fim do Reid foi o início de uma história de lealdade, engenhosidade e devoção ao dever e como os sobreviventes do destruidor foram resgatados por heróis improváveis ​​ladrões de areia.

Os Aliados já haviam tomado o lado leste de Leyte em outubro e novembro de 1944, mas milhares de japoneses permaneceram escavados nas colinas e montanhas da ilha. Para completar a aquisição, em 7 de dezembro a Marinha desembarcou a 77ª Divisão de Infantaria do Exército dos EUA perto da cidade de Ormoc, no lado oeste da ilha. Em 48 horas, um comboio de reabastecimento fez uma viagem de ida e volta de Leyte Gulf para Ormoc Bay sem incidentes. Enquanto isso, os japoneses, determinados a manter Leyte, estavam transferindo mais de 30.000 soldados de outras ilhas próximas.

Em 11 de dezembro, o Mahan-classe Reid, um sobrevivente do ataque a Pearl Harbor e cinco outros destróieres escoltaram os oito LSMs (navios de desembarque, médios) e cinco LCI (L) s (navios de desembarque, infantaria, grandes) do segundo escalão de reabastecimento em torno da ponta sul de Leyte e em Ormoc Bay. Em 1700, enquanto faziam 12 nós, caças e torpedeiros japoneses atacaram do noroeste, vindo em baixa altitude contra o pano de fundo das montanhas de Leyte. Os relatórios variam sobre o número de aviões, de 10 a 13, mas é certo que a cobertura aérea do comboio de apenas quatro F4U Corsários estava com as mãos ocupadas. Imediatamente, sete dos caças A6M5 Tipo 0 "Zeke" romperam e se dirigiram para o navio mais próximo - o Reid, que estava fora da proa de estibordo do comboio.

Os marinheiros estiveram tanto nos quartéis gerais nos últimos dias que muitos deles permaneceram e até dormiram em seus postos de batalha, então os canhões do comboio abriram fogo segundos após avistar os aviões. o Reid virou-se para bombordo para trazer mais armas para carregar, e sua bateria avançada de 5 polegadas abateu dois caças. Outro explodiu a cerca de 500 metros de sua viga de estibordo. Um quarto caça, danificado e aparentemente em um mergulho kamikaze, enganchou uma asa no ReidFoi amarrado a estibordo à frente e bateu na linha de água. A explosão de sua bomba abriu algumas das costuras do destruidor. Um quinto Zeke colidiu com o ReidA bombordo da proa.

O golpe fatal veio menos de um minuto após o início do ataque. Um Zeke veio da popa, foi atingido por um tiro de 20 mm do próximo navio em formação, LSM-42, e estava vomitando fumaça enquanto seu piloto se dirigia para a chaminé de popa do contratorpedeiro. O lutador caiu em chamas em seu quarto de bombordo, sua bomba explodindo no ReidEstá atrás da revista e cortando o navio quase pela metade. O contratorpedeiro deu uma guinada forte de 60 graus para estibordo, recuou para 30 graus e depois voltou para 90 graus. Ela estava fazendo 20 nós quando seu acelerador travou e, mesmo quando o navio estava afundando, ela estava fazendo algum progresso, amarrando-a morta e ferida no mar por 300 metros. LSM-42 teve que recuar para evitá-los e o Reid. Os aviões inimigos, entretanto, metralharam os homens na água.

Reid O bombeiro de primeira classe Arthur Anderson permaneceu em sua metralhadora, mergulhado na água do mar até a cintura, mantendo um fogo efetivo até que fosse tarde demais para se salvar. Alfred Howard Akers Jr., auxiliar do eletricista, de terceira classe, estava em sua estação de batalha, a sala do motor de direção, com água jorrando pela escotilha de escape. Ele desistiu da chance de se salvar quando ajudou um companheiro ferido através da escotilha para um local seguro. Tanto Akers quanto Anderson receberiam a Navy Cross postumamente por seus sacrifícios e estavam entre 103 dos 268 tripulantes que afundaram com o Reid. Quando ela tombou, a água derramou em suas pilhas, e ela caiu pela popa menos de dois minutos após a explosão kamikaze fatal.

Resgatando os sobreviventes

Depois de apenas quatro meses no mar, LSM-42A tripulação se viu lançada a um resgate dramático enquanto a batalha se desenrolava ao redor deles. Como o 42 deixou a formação para resgatar o Reidsobreviventes, ela passou diretamente sobre o navio afundado, e uma enorme explosão irrompeu do destruidor, levantando a popa do LSM para fora da água, derrubando suas bússolas de seus bináculos, colocando a bússola do giroscópio fora de operação e rompendo várias linhas no sala de maquinas.

Comparado com contratorpedeiros esguios que fervilhavam de armas, o navio de desembarque parecia tudo menos heróico, com seu alto perfil e convés cheio de suprimentos médicos, rações, munições e veículos. Quaisquer que fossem suas deficiências, o LSM era altamente manobrável, e o 42 facilitou entre os sobreviventes, abriu as portas de proa e baixou a rampa de carregamento enquanto seus tripulantes gritavam encorajamento aos marinheiros que lutavam na água. LCI (L) s548 e 661 e LSMs 38 e 39 também retiraram sobreviventes do mar, junto com dois corpos. LSM-42 puxou quatro policiais e dezenas de homens alistados, incluindo quatro malas. A cerca de 25 pés acima da água, o companheiro de segunda classe da Motor Machinist, Cecil Ray Johnston, comandando o motor das portas em arco do LSM, só pôde observar um homem gravemente ferido se agarrar fracamente a um bote salva-vidas. “Ele continuou gritando por ajuda”, Johnston escreveria mais tarde. "Mas enquanto eu o observava, suas mãos gradualmente cederam e ele lentamente desceu."

LSM-42 ainda tinha que completar sua missão de reabastecimento. LCI (L) -661 transferiu mais sete malas para o 42 enquanto o navio de desembarque navegava a oito nós para se juntar ao comboio. Sua tripulação deu aos homens resgatados roupas secas e beliches, que logo ficaram encharcados de sangue e óleo diesel. As queimaduras, ossos quebrados e ferimentos de estilhaços dos sobreviventes foram tratados pelo auxiliar do farmacêutico de segunda classe Elwood “Doc” Martin de 42 anos, que havia sido um agente funerário antes da guerra. Corales, o ReidMédico oficial.

Após o escuro, LSM-42 e os outros LSMs e LCIs desembarcaram em Ipil Beach para entregar sua carga de suprimentos e reforços. O inimigo estava perto o suficiente para que os projéteis explodissem a 1.000 jardas da praia. Baterias americanas e os contratorpedeiros de escolta dispararam contra posições inimigas e enfrentaram um transporte japonês que tentava pousar na costa perto de Ormoc.

Às 04:00, todos os Reid sobreviventes dos outros navios juntaram-se aos que estavam a bordo LSM-42, elevando o total para bem mais de 100. Então, com os suprimentos e reforços Ormoc entregues, as embarcações do comboio receberam ordem de reforma antes de retornar à base na Baía de San Pedro no Golfo de Leyte. LSM-42, no entanto, havia ficado preso em uma barcaça japonesa afundada. Assim começou uma série de desventuras que exigiriam toda a coragem e criatividade que a tripulação do 42 pudesse reunir.

Primeira etapa da jornada de retorno

LSM-316 também ficou preso na praia, e LSM-267O motor da âncora de popa, necessário para retirá-la da costa, não dava partida. Quando finalmente foi consertado, a maré estava tão baixa que ela ficou presa. O tempo era crítico, pois o amanhecer certamente traria mais ataques aéreos inimigos. Cada libra contada na tentativa de levantar a proa dos navios, então lastro e milhares de galões de combustível extra foram despejados e munição e homens enviados para a popa. Dos três navios presos, apenas o 316 conseguiu sair da praia.

Ela tentou rebocar o 267, com escavadeiras e tanques empurrando as portas da proa, mas o navio não se mexeu. O próximo 316 tentou puxar o 42 da praia. Justamente quando ela se soltou da barcaça afundada, a corda de reboque se separou e o 42 não conseguiu parar a tempo de evitar recuar, sujando o cabo de atracação de sete polegadas em ambos os parafusos.

Cerca de 110 homens alistados e 8 oficiais do Reid foram então transferidos para LSM-316 os 11 homens mais gravemente feridos, Corales, e um outro oficial permaneceram a bordo do 42. LSM-316 correu para se juntar ao comboio, LSM-42 afastou-se lentamente da praia, capaz de fazer apenas cerca de sete nós por causa da corda emaranhada em seus cabos. Mas ela era a nau capitânia de um homem de ação, o Tenente Comandante Everett E. Weire, comandante do LSM Grupo Seis, Flotilha Dois e comandante anterior do LST-460. Ele não pretendia suportar o ritmo lento por muito tempo e, depois de uma hora, ordenou que o navio parasse.

Usando uma máscara de mergulho improvisada e acompanhado pelo Alferes J. W. Lawrence, ele mergulhou sob o navio e cortou as linhas sujas do parafuso de estibordo. O 42 continuou para o sul até Baybay Harbor, onde o restante dos sobreviventes do Reid foram transferidos para o hospital de campo do 71º Batalhão Médico da 7ª Divisão de Infantaria dos EUA. Enquanto estava em Baybay, Weire, junto com três alferes, foi até o lado e cortou as linhas do parafuso de porta 42 do. Enquanto isso, LSM-267 flutuou na praia de Ipil com a maré alta e voltou ao navio irmão. Nessas águas perigosas, os homens a bordo de ambos os LSMs ficaram gratos pela companhia e pelo poder de fogo adicional.

O 42 e o 267 estavam ancorados perto da costa, com a intenção de esperar pela proteção das trevas antes de prosseguir. Mas eles receberam a notícia da praia de que estavam perto de uma base guerrilheira das Filipinas que era bombardeada pelos japoneses todos os dias por volta de 1530, e os LSMs receberam ordem de seguir em frente. Não haveria descanso para os dois navios, que partiram para a baía de San Pedro por volta de 1415. Eles passariam as próximas 24 horas abraçando as praias para evitar serem detectados, lutando contra aviões inimigos e cuidando de homens feridos e equipamentos danificados.

Dois alvos convidativos

Por volta de 1430, aviões de reconhecimento e caças japoneses apareceram no céu, e os dois navios, que eram pintados em tons de verde com preto em um padrão de camuflagem, desligaram os motores e derivaram, esperando que se misturassem com a costa próxima. Funcionou. Mas às 17h, oito caças inimigos, incluindo Zekes, Ki-44 “Tojos” e Ki-43 “Oscars”, apareceram e circularam para atacar de bombordo e estibordo. Então, de acordo com o companheiro da Motor Machinist Johnston, "o inferno desabou". Os LSMs abriram com todas as suas armas - 40 mms, 20 mms e calibres .50. Manobrando radicalmente o mais próximo possível da costa, eles travaram uma luta feroz contra os bombardeios e metralhadoras dos aviões inimigos, mas os navios de desembarque não eram páreo para os caças. Felizmente, um contratorpedeiro em patrulha transmitiu seu pedido de socorro e, cinco minutos depois, dois caças P-38 Lightning perseguiram os aviões inimigos pelas montanhas.

Quando acabou, os navios tinham gasto 2.400 cartuchos de 40 mm e 20 mm e cada navio tinha sete homens feridos, todos menos um por estilhaços (um marinheiro caiu da tina do canhão de proa do 42 para o convés abaixo, quebrando um pulso) . Enquanto o 42 sofreu pequenos danos, o conector e a ponte do 267 foram destruídos e seu radar, rádio e direção elétrica foram danificados. Seu oficial executivo assumiu o comando na direção de emergência para a popa. Estilhaços de bombas de uso geral quase atingiram o casco de estibordo do 267 em mais de cem lugares e seu motor de estibordo foi danificado. Com apenas um motor funcionando, o navio não seria capaz de fazer mais de cinco nós.

Para aproveitar a camuflagem dos navios, o comandante Weire ordenou que eles encalhassem em um recife de coral a cerca de um quilômetro a sudeste de Green Point. Lá, com as portas de proa abertas e as rampas abaixadas, os marinheiros trabalhavam para carregar as malas nas jangadas e levá-las para terra, a oitocentos metros de distância. Outros nadaram e vadearam para a praia, observando o céu com seus coletes salva-vidas desamarrados, prontos para escorregar para fora deles e sob a água para escapar de metralhar se o inimigo voltasse. Johnston escreveria mais tarde: “Foi a caminhada mais longa que já fiz”. Cerca de 110 homens passaram uma noite quente e assustadora na praia, esperando o sol se pôr. Um posto médico foi montado e todos com conhecimento em primeiros socorros ajudaram. Ainda assim, Ernest L. Sigismondi da terceira classe Yeoman do 267 morreu de seus ferimentos extensos.

Frustrante etapa final da viagem

Por volta de 2200, ambas as tripulações haviam retornado aos navios, e todos os feridos foram colocados a bordo do 42, mais apto para navegar. Ela cuidou do ReidSobreviventes e agora cuidava das vítimas de um navio irmão, bem como das suas.

Os navios foram apagados, o que significa que os buracos no 267 tiveram que ser tapados. Quando esgotaram o suprimento de velas de madeira, os tripulantes usaram restos de madeira, camisas e tudo o que puderam encontrar. Para piorar a situação, a bomba de transferência de combustível do 267 estava danificada e os homens tiveram que formar uma brigada de baldes para transferir óleo combustível para os tanques diurnos. Era uma tarefa quase impossível nas passagens escuras e apertadas.

O 267 foi equipado para reboque, mas imediatamente o radar do 42 detectou um avião de reconhecimento circulando no alto. Temendo outro ataque, Weire ordenou que o cabo de reboque fosse solto. A ameaça passou, mas uma hora depois o 267, que tinha o uso de apenas um motor e estava sendo dirigido do convés inferior, colidiu com o 42, derrubando homens feridos de seus beliches e abrindo um buraco de 4 metros em seu casco e no enfermaria, de cinco centímetros acima da linha d'água até o convés da superestrutura. Os homens lutaram para bombear a água que espirrou pela abertura e para preencher o buraco com colchões e escoramento. A colisão cortou as linhas elétricas e de água doce do 42 e bloqueou duas escotilhas, tornando os compartimentos de bombordo dianteiros inacessíveis. Era uma coisa após a outra, e com as condições indo de mal a pior, ainda não havia nada a fazer a não ser continuar pressionando para o porto.

Durante as primeiras horas de 13 de dezembro, os dois navios tentaram repetidamente se equipar para rebocar, mas na escuridão foi impossível colocar o 267 aleijado em posição. Às 08:00, quando eles se aproximaram do lado leste do Leyte e as coisas finalmente estavam melhorando, o motor restante do 267 parou. Engenheiros intrigados decidiram que provavelmente era porque o óleo entregue na caçamba não passava pelo purificador e impurezas sujavam o motor. Felizmente, a luz do dia permitiu que os tripulantes se preparassem para o reboque. Certamente, eles pensaram, nada mais poderia dar errado.

Mas assim que os navios partiram, o freio de reboque estalou. A única coisa que restou a fazer foi atracar o 267 ao lado, e então os dois intrépidos navios de desembarque mancaram - o 267 como um guerreiro ferido encostado em um companheiro exausto - a uns pesados ​​seis nós nas últimas 30 milhas. Houve um doce alívio quando eles lançaram âncora na Baía de San Pedro às 15h30, e LCIs saíram para transferir os feridos para o navio-hospital Abundante (AH-9). Fazia dois dias desde que os marinheiros do LSM-42 e LSM-267 tinha dormido mais do que alguns minutos ou tinha uma ração completa.

Essa não foi a última vez que os homens dos dois anfíbios se viram. O 267 voltou ao serviço, e seis meses depois ela se reuniu com o 42, praticando lado a lado na ilha parcialmente libertada de Morotai. Lá, as forças aliadas se prepararam para a última grande operação anfíbia da guerra, o Balikpapan de Bornéu, onde os australianos lutaram, com o apoio das forças navais e aéreas dos EUA.

Os ‘Sandscrapers’ da Marinha

Um dos enredos da guerra do Pacífico foi a busca pela maneira perfeita de colocar muitos homens e máquinas nas praias arenosas. Todo tipo de embarcação de desembarque - desde pequenos barcos como LCVP (embarcação de desembarque, veículo e pessoal) ao LCI (embarcação de desembarque, infantaria) e LCT (embarcação de desembarque, tanque) - tinha vantagens e desvantagens. Havia uma necessidade clara de um navio de grande capacidade, bem armado, de alto mar, que pudesse transportar homens, máquinas ou suprimentos, dirigir-se às praias do Pacífico e desembarcar novamente. No final da guerra, projetos anteriores contribuíram para o desenvolvimento de um navio completamente novo, do tamanho certo, com os recursos certos.

O primeiro LSM (navio de desembarque, médio) foi concluído em abril de 1944. Logo, seis estaleiros estavam produzindo um por mês. Mais de 550 deles foram lançados em pouco mais de um ano, cada um tripulado por cerca de 55 homens alistados e oficiais que foram treinados de forma rápida, mas rigorosa. As tripulações estavam unidas, enquanto os recrutas e oficiais terminavam seu treinamento juntos em Little Creek, Virgínia.

Eles embarcaram em um navio carregado com inovações de design. A proa alta abrigava portas semelhantes às do LST (navio de desembarque, tanque), que se abriam para revelar uma rampa de carregamento na qual jipes, caminhões e tanques podiam dirigir diretamente do convés do poço do navio para a areia. Os LSMs eram altamente manobráveis, encontrando seu caminho em praias lotadas em meio a destroços e recifes, e seus fundos planos deslizavam por barras de areia e praias, rendendo o apelido de "Sandscrapers", já que os navios saíam apenas seis pés na proa quando carregados. Quando um LSM se aproximou de uma praia, a âncora de popa, um recurso adaptado do LCI, foi largada e a corrente jogada, ajudando-a a ir direto para a praia. Quando o navio estava pronto para retirar, a âncora de popa foi puxada, efetivamente retraindo o navio da praia.

É claro que o fundo plano também era um passeio difícil, pois batia nas ondas, mas os LSMs estavam entre os navios mais estáveis ​​à tona. Eles tinham um centro de gravidade baixo e um centro de flutuação alto, dando-lhes um snap roll de cerca de quatro segundos de estibordo a bombordo e vice-versa.

Além do mais, a maioria era movida por um par de motores a diesel Fairbanks-Morse, maiores do que aqueles que moviam LSTs, produzindo uma velocidade máxima de mais de 13 nós. O LSM tinha um alcance de 4.900 milhas. Com pouco mais de 60 metros de comprimento e 35 pés de largura, ela podia carregar cinco tanques médios ou três pesados, ou seis veículos de pouso com esteiras. E o convés do poço aberto do LSM o tornou adequado para carregamento manual ou em torre. Havia até alguns beliches para uma força de desembarque.

Os primeiros LSMs estavam armados com seis canhões de 20 mm e imediatamente ficou claro que o arco precisava de muito mais músculos. Alguns, incluindo LSM-42, tinha um único 40 mm na proa, mas a maioria ostentava gêmeos de 40 mm. As grandes armas não podiam ser treinadas para repelir pequenas embarcações, então algumas equipes adicionaram metralhadoras de calibre .50. Intendente de segunda classe Edward W. Keenneweg de LSM-42 olhou ao redor do porto um dia e notou um par de armas calibre .50 em veículos do Exército destruídos, ele trocou suprimentos por eles, e as armas logo foram montadas no 42, à frente das cubas de arma de 20 mm. Os bravos homens que os guarneciam não se preocuparam com o fato de que eles não tinham escudos. Cerca de 40 LSMs foram instalados como plataformas dedicadas de lançamento de foguetes, designadas LSM (R) s. Com um deck cheio de lançadores de foguetes de 5 polegadas de carregamento contínuo, eles trouxeram um incrível poder de fogo para invasões posteriores, incluindo Iwo Jima.

LSMs navegaram nas águas do oeste do Pacífico por meses após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, transportando prisioneiros de ambos os lados e devolvendo os civis deslocados para casa. Alguns LSMs serviram na Guerra da Coréia e alguns foram usados ​​em outras operações, com o último no serviço da Marinha sendo desativado em 1965. Alguns tiveram uma longa vida como mercadores e navios de salvamento. Eles foram projetados para ocupar um lugar especial entre muitas outras embarcações de desembarque na Segunda Guerra Mundial. E, no entanto, seu papel nunca ficou desatualizado, sendo preenchido na atual Marinha dos EUA por uma nova geração de navios de assalto anfíbio tecnologicamente avançados.

Relatório de Ação: “Operação da Unidade de Reabastecimento da Baía Ormoc (Segundo Echelon), LSM-42, 15 de dezembro de 1944, ”RG 38, National Archives and Records Administration (doravante NARA), College Park, MD.

Relatório de ação: “Second Resupply Echelon, Ormoc Bay, Leyte Island, LSM-267, 16 de dezembro de 1944, ”RG 38, NARA.

Entrevistas do autor com S2C Estel Hamilton, LSM-42e MMM2C Cecil Ray Johnston, LSM-42, e correspondência de 26 de setembro de 1986 com F1C Kenneth G. Schoening, o Reid.

Artigo de Richard Henry Corales, WW2 Awards.com, http://en.ww2awards.com/person/45374.

Robert J. Cressman, A cronologia oficial da Marinha dos Estados Unidos na Segunda Guerra Mundial (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2000).

O Cruzeiro do LSM 267, compilado e publicado pela tripulação de LSM-267.

Toras de convés, LSM-38, LSM-39, LSM-42, LSM-316, Bush (DD-529), RG 38, NARA.

Rolf F. Illsley, LSM-LSMR: Forças anfíbias da segunda guerra mundial (Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company, 1994).

“Leyte: The U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II,” http://www.history.army.mil/brochures/leyte/leyte.htm.

Samuel Eliot Morison, Leyte: junho de 1944 a janeiro de 1945, vol. 12, História das Operações Navais dos Estados Unidos na Segunda Guerra Mundial (Boston: Little, Brown, 1958).

USS Reid 369, www.ussreid369.org.

Robin L. Rielly, Ataques Kamikaze da Segunda Guerra Mundial: Uma História Completa dos Ataques Suicidas Japoneses em Navios Americanos, por Aeronaves e Outros Meios (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2010).


Protocolos dos Sábios de Sião

Nossos editores irão revisar o que você enviou e determinar se o artigo deve ser revisado.

Protocolos dos Sábios de Sião, também chamado Protocolos dos Sábios Sábios de Sião, documento fraudulento que serviu de pretexto e justificativa para o anti-semitismo principalmente no início do século XX. O documento pretendia ser o relato de uma série de 24 (em outras versões, 27) reuniões realizadas em Basel, Suíça, em 1897, na época do primeiro congresso sionista. Lá, judeus e maçons teriam feito planos para perturbar a civilização cristã e erigir um estado mundial sob seu governo conjunto. O liberalismo e o socialismo seriam os meios de subverter a cristandade, se a subversão falhasse, todas as capitais da Europa seriam sabotadas.

o Protocolos foram impressos na Rússia de forma abreviada em 1903 no jornal Znamia (“Banner”) e posteriormente (1905) como adendo a um tratado religioso de Serge Nilus, um funcionário czarista. Eles foram traduzidos para o alemão, francês, inglês e outras línguas europeias e logo se tornaram um clássico da literatura anti-semita. No jornal particular de Henry Ford dos Estados Unidos, Dearborn Independent, muitas vezes os citou como evidência de uma ameaça judaica.

O caráter espúrio do Protocolos foi revelado pela primeira vez em 1921 por Philip Graves de Os tempos (Londres), que demonstrou sua óbvia semelhança com uma sátira a Napoleão III do advogado francês Maurice Joly, publicada em 1864 e intitulada Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu (“Diálogo no Inferno entre Maquiavel e Montesquieu”). Uma investigação subsequente, particularmente pelo historiador russo Vladimir Burtsev, revelou que o Protocolos foram falsificações compostas por funcionários da polícia secreta russa a partir da sátira de Joly, um romance fantástico (Biarritz) por Hermann Goedsche (1868), e outras fontes.

Os Editores da Enciclopédia Britânica Este artigo foi revisado e atualizado mais recentemente por Amy Tikkanen, Gerente de Correções.


Ballard II DD- 267 - História

Para: Força-Tarefa 67

Acreditamos que o inimigo sem dúvida sofreu uma derrota esmagadora. Agradecemos ao Almirante Kinkaid por sua intervenção ontem. Agradecemos a Lee por seu grande esforço na noite passada. Nossa própria aeronave tem sido grande em seu martelar implacável sobre o inimigo. All those efforts are appreciated but our greatest homage goes to Callaghan, Scott and their men who with magnificent courage against seemingly hopeless odds drove back the first hostile attack and paved the way for the success to follow. To them the men of Cactus lift their battered helmets in deepest admiration.

ALEXANDER A. VANDEGRIFT
General, U.S Marines

Following training operations off the West Coast, she was sent to the South Pacific to take part in the Guadalcanal operation, arriving in late August.

Replacing Farenholt (flagship of Capt. Robert G. Tobin, ComDesRon 12), Aaron Ward e Buchanan in the screen of Vespa (CV 7) after the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, Laffey, with Duncan, Lansdowne and cruisers Helena e Salt Lake City, collectively rescued 1,946 survivors (see photo above) on 15 September, when Vespa was torpedoed by the Japanese submarine I-19.

Laffey&rsquos casualties at the Battle of Guadalcanal.

Source: Bureau of Personnel casualty report, NARA .

Two night gun-and-torpedo battles off Guadalcanal highlighted the remainder of Laffey&rsquos short career. On 11&ndash12 October, at the Battle of Cape Esperance, she was third in line following DesRon 12 destroyers Farenholt (flag) and Duncan, leading cruisers São Francisco (flagship of Rear Admiral Norman Scott, CTG 64.2), Boise, Salt Lake City e Helena and rear DDs Buchanan e McCalla in turning back a Japanese bombardment group during action in which Duncan estava perdido.

IN TRIBUTE TO THOSE WHO FOUGHT IN THE BATTLE OF GUADALCANAL
NOVEMBER 13&ndash15, 1942

To the superb officers and men on the sea, on land, in the air, and under the seas who in the past five days have performed such magnificent feats for our country. You have won the undying gratitude of your country and have written our names in golden letters on the pages of history. No honor for you could be too great, my pride in you is beyond expression. Magnificently done. May God bless each and every one of you. To the glorious dead, hail heroes&mdashmay you all rest with God.

WILLIAM F. HALSEY
Admiral, U.S. Navy

A month later, in the early hours of 13 November, she participated in the opening of the First Naval Battle of Guadalcanal. Second in line behind 1,500-tonner Cushing and ahead of Sterett e O&rsquoBannon in the van of Rear Admiral Daniel J. Callahan&rsquos 13-ship Task Group 67.4, she engaged Japanese battleships Hiei e Kirishima before sustaining a torpedo hit in the stern from destroyer Teruzuki. Her after magazines detonated shortly thereafter and she sank with a loss of 59 officers and men killed and 116 wounded. (Aaron Ward, Capt. Tobin&rsquos flagship on this occasion, led the four rear destroyers&mdashDesRon 12&rsquos Barton e Monssen, both of which were also lost in this action, and the 2,100-ton Fletcher, which emerged undamaged. Laffey, Sterett e O&rsquoBannon all received the Presidential Unit Citation for this action, as did Rear Admiral Scott&rsquos flagship Atlanta and Admiral Callaghan&rsquos flagship São Francisco.)

In 1992, a National Geographic expedition led by Dr. Robert Ballard discovered Laffey&rsquos remains at a depth of nearly a half-mile off Guadalcanal. As reported in the video and book The Lost Fleet of Guadalcanal, Laffey is upright and largely intact from the bow to amidships, but her after third has disappeared. Both forward 5-inch guns are trained out to port, and her midships superstructure is holed by a 14-inch projectile from a Japanese battleship.

In April 2006, cruise ship Clipper Odyssey hove to over the position of Laffey&rsquos remains. Mrs. Cary Webb Sears, daughter of LCdr. Hank, addressed the passengers and crew before leading a wreath ceremony.

In addition to her Presidential Unit Citation, Laffey earned three service stars on her Asiatic-Pacific Service Ribbon for participating in the following operations:


U.S. Naval Training Center Boot Camp Collections

The GG Archives houses a collection of Navy Boot Camp (USNTC) graduation books from four navy boot camp locations.

San Diego: Boot Camp San Diego was used from 1923-1997 and is now the site of Liberty Station. The base, located at the northern end of San Diego Bay trained tens of thousands of sailors. The site was also used as a location for a number of movies including Top Gun.

Great Lakes: Currently the only remaining Naval Training Center located in Waukegan, just north of Chicago. The original building dates from 1905. This station along with San Diego comprises the bulk of our collection of NTC yearbooks.

Orlando: Originally an Army Air Base, it was transferred to the Navy in 1968 when it became the Naval Training Center Orlando. This Naval boot camp was utilized until 1998. It had the distinction of being the only NTC providing training for female Navy recruits.

Bainbridge: Active from 1942 to 1947 and 1951 to 1976. USNTC Bainbridge was located about 35 miles northeast of Baltimore, Maryland. The majority of the recruits who went through boot camp at Bainbridge, about 244 thousand, did so during World War II.

Physical training, inoculation against diseases, and training in first aid, physical hygiene, and related subjects form another major part of the recruit training program. These articles highlight boot camp life, procedures, traditions, and more.

Collection of Navy Boot Camp Yearbooks - The "Compass" with rosters and photographs of recruits at the Naval Training Center at Bainbridge, Maryland. Our collection dates from 1951 through 1956.

Collection of Navy Boot Camp Yearbooks - The "Keel" with rosters and photographs of recruits at the Naval Training Center at Great Lakes, Illinois. Our largest collection of the boot camps encompasses the years 1947-2000.

Small Collection of Navy Boot Camp Yearbooks - The "Rudder" with rosters and photographs of recruits at the Naval Training Center at Orlando, Florida. This collection dates from 1970-1986.

Collection of Navy Boot Camp Yearbooks - The "Anchor" with rosters and photographs of recruits at the Naval Training Center at San Diego, California. One of our larger collections of boot camp books dates from 1955-1991.

Our small but growing collection of group photographs from Naval Training Centers. The photos in this section are large format. Small group photographs can also be found in many of the boot camp books in our collection.

Archive of Requests for Replacement Books or Scanned Copies of Specific Sections of the Boot Camp Graduation Yearbooks for Great Lakes, San Diego, Bainbridge and Orlando Naval Training Centers. We are no longer updating these Pages but will leave them up indefinitely so that those who have inquired can continue to receive leads. Also check our resource guide Finding United States Navy Boot Camp Graduation Books.


Titanic: Before and After

Yet on the night of April 14, 1912, just four days after leaving Southampton, England on its maiden voyage to New York, the Titanic struck an iceberg off the coast of Newfoundland and sank. Now, more than a century after the Titanic went down, experts are still debating possible causes of this historic disaster that took the lives of more than 1,500 passengers and crew. Most of them agree that only a combination of circumstances can fully explain what doomed the supposedly unsinkable ship.

It was traveling too fast.
From the beginning, some blamed the Titanic’s skipper, Captain E.J. Smith, for sailing the massive ship at such a high speed (22 knots) through the iceberg-heavy waters of the North Atlantic. Some believed Smith was trying to better the crossing time of Titanic’s White Star sister ship, the Olympic. But in a 2004 paper, engineer Robert Essenhigh speculated that efforts to control a fire in one of the ship’s coal bunkers could have explained why the Titanic was sailing at full speed.

The wireless radio operator dismissed a key iceberg warning.
Less than an hour before the Titanic hit the iceberg, another nearby ship, the Californian, radioed to say it had been stopped by dense field ice. But as the warning didn’t begin with the prefix “MSG” (Master’s Service Gram), which would have required the captain to directly acknowledge receiving the message, the Titanic’s radio operator Jack Phillips considered the other ship’s warning non-urgent, and didn’t pass it along.

It may have taken a fatal wrong turn.
According to a claim made in 2010 by Louise Patten (the granddaughter of the most senior Titanic officer to survive, Charles Lightoller), one of the ship’s crewmembers panicked after hearing the order to turn “hard-a-starboard” in order to avoid the approaching iceberg. Because ships at the time operated on two different steering order systems, he became confused and turned the wrong way𠅍irectly toward the ice. Patten included this version of events, which she said she heard from her grandmother after Lightoller’s death, in her fictionalized account of the Titanic disaster, Good as Gold.

WATCH: The two-part series Titanic in HISTORY Vault

The Titanic under construction at Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland. (Credit: Ralph White/CORBIS/Corbis via Getty Images)

The Titanic’s builders tried to cut costs.
In 1985, when an American-French expedition finally located the historic wreck, investigators discovered that, contrary to earlier findings, the Titanic had not sunk intact after hitting the iceberg but had broken apart on the ocean’s surface. Materials scientists Tim Foecke and Jennifer Hooper McCarty have cast blame on the more than 3 million rivets that held the hull’s steel plates together. They examined rivets brought up from the wreck and found them to contain a high concentration of “slag,” a smelting residue that can make metal split apart. This may have weakened the part of the Titanic’s hull that hit the iceberg, causing it to break apart upon impact.

Mirages and hazy horizons were created by weather conditions.
Two studies done around the time of the 100th anniversary of the Titanic disaster in 2012 suggested that nature played a key role in the ship’s fate. The first argued that the Earth came unusually close to both the moon and the sun that year, increasing their gravitational pull on the ocean and producing record tides, which caused increased amounts of floating ice in the North Atlantic around the time of the sinking. 

The second study, by British historian Tim Maltin, claimed that atmospheric conditions on the night of the disaster might have caused a phenomenon called super refraction. This bending of light could have created mirages, or optical illusions, that prevented the Titanic’s lookouts from seeing the iceberg clearly. It also would have made the Titanic appear closer, and smaller, to the nearby ship the Californian, causing its crew to assume it was a different ship without a radio, preventing them from attempting to communicate. From their vantage point, and with these hazy conditions, when the Titanic started to sink, the Californian’s crew would have thought it was merely sailing away.

VIDEO: Titanic Everyone knows the Titanic was big, and we have the hard numbers to prove it. Discover what made it a supersized ship.

The lookouts had no binoculars.
Second officer David Blair, who held the key to the Titanic’s store of binoculars in his pocket, was transferred off the ship before it left for its maiden voyage from Southampton, and forgot to hand over the key to the officer who replaced him. At a later inquiry into the sinking, a lookout on the Titanic said binoculars might have helped them spot and dodge the iceberg in time. Blair kept the key as a memento of his near-miss it was auctioned off in 2007 and fetched some ꎐ,000.

There weren’t enough lifeboats.
No matter what caused the Titanic to sink, such a massive loss of life could probably have been avoided if the ship had carried sufficient lifeboats for its passengers and crew. But the White Star liner left Southampton with only 20 lifeboats, the legal minimum, with a total capacity of 1,178 people. Though Maurice Clarke, the civil servant who inspected the Titanic in Southampton, recommended it carry 50 percent more lifeboats, his handwritten notes at the time later revealed that he felt his job would be threatened if he did not give the famous ship the go-ahead to sail. Due to the chaos that ensued after the Titanic struck an iceberg, the 20 lifeboats departed the ship with some 400 empty seats, leaving more than 1,500 people to perish in the frigid ocean waters.


Ballard II DD- 267 - History

By Dorothy Schwieder, professor of history, Iowa State University

Marquette and Joliet Find Iowa Lush and Green

In the summer of 1673, French explorers Louis Joliet and Father Jacques Marquette traveled down the Mississippi River past the land that was to become the state of Iowa. The two explorers, along with their five crewmen, stepped ashore near where the Iowa river flowed into the Mississippi. It is believed that the 1673 voyage marked the first time that white people visited the region of Iowa. After surveying the surrounding area, the Frenchmen recorded in their journals that Iowa appeared lush, green, and fertile. For the next 300 years, thousands of white settlers would agree with these early visitors: Iowa was indeed lush and green moreover, its soil was highly productive. In fact, much of the history of the Hawkeye State is inseparably intertwined with its agricultural productivity. Iowa stands today as one of the leading agricultural states in the nation, a fact foreshadowed by the observation of the early French explorers.

Before 1673, however, the region had long been home to many Native Americans. Approximately 17 different Indian tribes had resided here at various times including the Ioway, Sauk, Mesquaki, Sioux, Potawatomi, Oto, and Missouri. The Potawatomi, Oto, and Missouri Indians had sold their land to the federal government by 1830 while the Sauk and Mesquaki remained in the Iowa region until 1845. The Santee Band of the Sioux was the last to negotiate a treaty with the federal government in 1851.

The Sauk and Mesquaki constituted the largest and most powerful tribes in the Upper Mississippi Valley. They had earlier moved from the Michigan region into Wisconsin and by the 1730s, they had relocated in western Illinois. There they established their villages along the Rock and Mississippi Rivers. They lived in their main villages only for a few months each year. At other times, they traveled throughout western Illinois and eastern Iowa hunting, fishing, and gathering food and materials with which to make domestic articles. Every spring, the two tribes traveled northward into Minnesota where they tapped maple trees and made syrup.

In 1829, the federal government informed the two tribes that they must leave their villages in western Illinois and move across the Mississippi River into the Iowa region. The federal government claimed ownership of the Illinois land as a result of the Treaty of 1804. The move was made but not without violence. Chief Black hawk, a highly-respected Sauk leader, protested the move and in 1832 returned to reclaim the Illinois village of Saukenauk. For the next three months, the Illinois militia pursued Black Hawk and his band of approximately 400 Indians northward along the eastern side of the Mississippi River. The Indians surrendered at the Bad Axe River in Wisconsin, their numbers having dwindled to about 200. This encounter is known as the Black Hawk War. As punishment for their resistance, the federal government required the Sauk and Mesquaki to relinquish some of their land in eastern Iowa. This land, known as the Black Hawk Purchase, constituted a strip 50 miles wide lying along the Mississippi River, stretching from the Missouri border to approximately Fayette and Clayton Counties in Northeastern Iowa.

Today, Iowa is still home to one Indian group, the Mesquaki, who reside on the Mesquaki Settlement in Tama County. After most Sauk and Mesquaki members had been removed from the state, some Mesquaki tribal members, along with a few Sauk, returned to hunt and fish in eastern Iowa. The Indians then approached Governor James Grimes with the request that they be allowed to purchase back some of their original land. They collected $735 for their first land purchase and eventually they bought back approximately 3,200 acres.

Iowa's First White Settlers

The first official white settlement in Iowa began in June 1833, in the Black Hawk Purchase. Most of Iowa's first white settlers came from Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Indiana, Kentucky, and Virginia. The great majority of newcomers came in family units. Most families had resided in at least one additional state between the time they left their state of birth and the time they arrived in Iowa. Sometimes families had relocated three or four times before they reached Iowa. At the same time, not all settlers remained here many soon moved on to the Dakotas or other areas in the Great Plains.

Iowa's earliest white settlers soon discovered an environment different from that which they had known back East. Most northeastern and southeastern states were heavily timbered settlers there had material for building homes, outbuildings, and fences. Moreover, wood also provided ample fuel. Once past the extreme eastern portion of Iowa, settlers quickly discovered that the state was primarily a prairie or tall grass region. Trees grew abundantly in the extreme eastern and southeastern portions, and along rivers and streams, but elsewhere timber was limited.

In most portions of eastern and central Iowa, settlers could find sufficient timber for construction of log cabins, but substitute materials had to be found for fuel and fencing. For fuel, they turned to dried prairie hay, corn cobs, and dried animal droppings. In southern Iowa, early settlers found coal outcroppings along rivers and streams. People moving into northwest Iowa, an area also devoid of trees, constructed sod houses. Some of the early sod house residents wrote in glowing terms about their new quarters, insisting that "soddies" were not only cheap to build but were warm in the winter and cool in the summer. Settlers experimented endlessly with substitute fencing materials. Some residents built stone fences some constructed dirt ridges others dug ditches. The most successful fencing material was the osage orange hedge until the 1870s when the invention of barbed wire provided farmers with satisfactory fencing material.

Early settlers recognized other disadvantages of prairie living. Many people complained that the prairie looked bleak and desolate. One woman, newly arrived from New York State, told her husband that she thought she would die without any trees. Emigrants from Europe, particularly the Scandinavian countries, reacted in similar fashion. These newcomers also discovered that the prairies held another disadvantage - one that could be deadly. Prairie fires were common in the tall grass country, often occurring yearly. Diaries of pioneer families provide dramatic accounts of the reactions of early Iowans to prairie fires, often a mixture of fear and awe. When a prairie fire approached, all family members were called out to help keep the flames away. One nineteenth century Iowan wrote that in the fall, people slept "with one eye open" until the first snow fell, indicating that the threat of fire had passed.

Pioneer families faced additional hardships in their early years in Iowa. Constructing a farmstead was hard work in itself. Families not only had to build their homes, but often they had to construct the furniture used. Newcomers were often lonely for friends and relatives. Pioneers frequently contracted communicable diseases such as scarlet fever. Fever and ague, which consisted of alternating fevers and chills, was a constant complaint. Later generations would learn that fever and ague was a form of malaria, but pioneers thought that it was caused by gas emitted from the newly turned sod. Moreover, pioneers had few ways to relieve even common colds or toothaches.

Early life on the Iowa prairie was sometimes made more difficult by the death of family members. Some pioneer women wrote of the heartache caused by the death of a child. One women, Kitturah Belknap, had lost one baby to lung fever. When a second child died, she confided in her diary:

"I have had to pass thru another season of sorrow. Death has again entered our home. This time it claimed our dear little John for its victim. It was hard for me to give him up but dropsy on the brain ended its work in four short days. We are left again with one baby and I feel that my health is giving way."

But for the pioneers who remained on the land 1, and most did, the rewards were substantial. These early settlers soon discovered that prairie land, although requiring some adjustments, was some of the richest land to be found anywhere in the world. Moreover, by the late 1860s, most of the state had been settled and the isolation and loneliness associated with pioneer living had quickly vanished.

Transportation: Railroad Fever

As thousands of settlers poured into Iowa in the mid-1800s, all shared a common concern for the development of adequate transportation. The earliest settlers shipped their agricultural goods down the Mississippi River to New Orleans, but by the 1850s, Iowans had caught the nation's railroad fever. The nation's first railroad had been built near Baltimore in 1831, and by 1860, Chicago was served by almost a dozen lines. Iowans, like other Midwesterners, were anxious to start railroad building in their state.

In the early 1850s, city officials in the river communities of Dubuque, Clinton, Davenport, and Burlington began to organize local railroad companies. City officials knew that railroads building west from Chicago would soon reach the Mississippi River opposite the four Iowa cities. With the 1850s, railroad planning took place which eventually resulted in the development of the Illinois Central, the Chicago and North Western, reaching Council Bluffs in 1867. Council Bluffs had been designated as the eastern terminus for the Union Pacific, the railroad that would eventually extend across the western half of the nation and along with the Central Pacific, provide the nation's first transcontinental railroad. A short time later a fifth railroad, the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Pacific, also completed its line across the state.

The completion of five railroads across Iowa brought major economic changes. Of primary importance, Iowans could travel every month of the year. During the latter ninetieth and early twentieth centuries, even small Iowa towns had six passenger trains a day. Steamboats and stagecoaches had previously provided transportation, but both were highly dependent on the weather, and steam boats could not travel at all once the rivers had frozen over. Railroads also provided year-round transportation for Iowa's farmers. With Chicago's pre-eminence as a railroad center, the corn, wheat, beef, and pork raised by Iowa's farmers could be shipped through Chicago, across the nation to eastern seaports, and from there, anywhere in the world.

Railroads also brought major changes in Iowa's industrial sector. Before 1870, Iowa contained some manufacturing firms in the eastern portion of the state, particularly all made possible by year-around railroad transportation. Many of the new industries were related to agriculture. In Cedar Rapid, John and Robert Stuart, along with their cousin, George Douglas, started an oats processing plant. In time, this firm took the name Quaker Oats. Meat packing plants also appeared in the 1870s in different parts of the state: Sinclair Meat Packing opened in Cedar Rapids and John Morrell and Company set up operations in Ottumwa.

As Iowa's population and economy continued to grow, education and religious institutions also began to take shape. Americans had long considered education important and Iowans did not deviate from that belief. Early in any neighborhood, residents began to organize schools. The first step was to set up township elementary schools, aided financially by the sale or lease of section 16 in each of the state's many townships. The first high school was established in the 1850s, but in general, high schools did not become widespread until after 1900. Private and public colleges also soon appeared. By 1900, the Congregationalists had established Grinnell College. The Catholics and Methodists were most visible in private higher education, however. As of 1900, they had each created five colleges: Iowa Wesleyan, Simpson, Cornell, Morningside, and Upper Iowa University by the Methodists and Marycrest, St. Ambrose, Briar Cliff, Loras, and Clarke by the Catholics. Other church colleges present in Iowa by 1900 were Coe and Dubuque (Presbyterian) Wartburg and Luther (Lutheran) Central (Baptist) and Drake (Disciples of Christ).

The establishment of private colleges coincided with the establishment of state educational institutions. In the mid-1800s, state officials organized three state institutions of higher learning, each with a different mission. The University of Iowa, established in 1855, was to provide classical and professional education for Iowa's young people Iowa State College of Science and Technology (now Iowa State University), established in 1858 was to offer agricultural and technical training. Iowa State Teachers' College (now University of Northern Iowa), founded in 1876 was to train teachers for the state's public schools.

Iowans were also quick to organize churches. Beginning in the 1840s, the Methodist Church sent out circuit riders to travel throughout the settled portion of the state. Each circuit rider typically had a two-week circuit in which he visited individual families and conducted sermons for local Methodist congregations. Because the circuit riders' sermons tended to be emotional and simply stated, Iowa's frontiers-people could readily identify with them. The Methodists profited greatly from their "floating ministry," attracting hundreds of converts in Iowa's early years. As more settled communities appeared, the Methodist Church assigned ministers to these stationary charges.

Catholics also moved into Iowa soon after white settlement began. Dubuque served as the center for Iowa Catholicism as Catholics established their first diocese in that city. The leading Catholic figure was Bishop Mathias Loras, a Frenchman, who came to Dubuque in the late 1830s. Bishop Loras helped establish Catholic churches in the area and worked hard to attract priests and nuns from foreign countries. Before the Civil War, most of Iowa's Catholic clergy were from France, Ireland, and Germany. After the Civil War, more and more of that group tended to be native-born. Bishop Loras also helped establish two Catholic educational institutions in Dubuque, Clarke College and Loras College.

Congregationalists were the third group to play an important role in Iowa before the Civil War. The first group of Congregationalist ministers here were known as the Iowa Band. This was a group of 11 ministers, all trained at Andover Theological Seminary, who agreed to carry the gospel into a frontier region. The group arrived in 1843, and each minister selected a different town in which to establish a congregation. The Iowa Band's motto was "each a church all a college." After a number of years when each minister worked independently, the ministers collectively helped to establish Iowa College in Davenport. Later church officials move the college to Grinnell and changed its name to Grinnell College. The letters and journal of William Salter, a member of the Iowa Band, depict the commitment and philosophy of this small group. At one point, Salter wrote the following to his fiancee back East:
"I shall aim to show that the West will be just what others make it, and that they which work the hardest and do the most for it shall have it. Prayer and pain will save the West and the Country is worth it. " 2

Throughout the nineteenth century, many other denominations also established churches within the state. Quakers established meeting houses in the communities of West Branch, Springdale, and Salem. Presbyterians were also well represented in Iowa communities. Baptists often followed the practice of hiring local farmers to preach on Sunday mornings. And as early as the 1840s, Mennonite Churches began to appear in eastern Iowa. The work of the different denominations meant that during the first three decades of settlement, Iowans had quickly established their basic religious institutions.

By 1860, Iowa had achieved statehood (December 28, 1846), and the state continued to attract many settlers, both native and foreign-born. Only the extreme northwestern part of the state remained a frontier area. But after almost 30 years of peaceful development, Iowans found their lives greatly altered with the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861. While Iowans had no battles fought on their soil, the state paid dearly through the contributions of its fighting men. Iowa males responded enthusiastically to the call for Union volunteers and more than 75,000 Iowa men served with distinction in campaigns fought in the East and in the South. Of that number, 13,001 died in the war, many of disease rather than from battle wounds. Some men died in the Confederate prison camps, particularly Andersonville, Georgia. A total of 8,500 Iowa men were wounded.

Many Iowans served with distinction in the Union Army. Probably the best known was Grenville Dodge, who became a general during the war. Dodge fulfilled two important functions: he supervised the rebuilding of many southern railroad lines to enable Union troops to move more quickly through the South and he directed the counter intelligence operation for the union Army, locating Northern sympathizers in the South who, in turn, would relay information on Southern troop movements and military plans to military men in the North.

Another Iowan, Cyrus Carpenter, was 31 years old when he entered the army in 1861. Living in Ft. Dodge, Carpenter requested a commission from the army rather than enlisting. He was given the rank of captain and was installed as quartermaster. Carpenter had never served in that capacity before, but with the aid of an army clerk, he proceeded to carry out his duties. Most of the time, Carpenter was responsible for feeding 40,000 men. Not only was it difficult to have sufficient food for the men, but Carpenter constantly had to keep his supplies and staff on the move. Carpenter found it an immensely frustrating task, but most of the time, he managed to have the food and other necessities at the right place at the right time.

Iowa women also served their nation during the war. Hundreds of women knitted sweaters, sewed uniforms, rolled bandages, and collected money for military supplies. Women formed soldiers' relief societies throughout the state. Annie Wittenmyer particularly distinguished herself through volunteer work. She spent much time during the war raising money and needed supplies for Iowa soldiers. At one point, Mrs. Wittenmyer visited her brother in a Union army hospital. She objected to the food served to the patients, contending that no one could get well on greasy bacon and cold coffee. She suggested to hospital authorities that they establish diet kitchens so that the patients would receive proper nutrition. Eventually, some diet kitchens were established in military hospitals. Mrs. Wittenmyer also was responsible for the establishment of several homes for soldiers' orphans.

The Civil War era brought considerable change to Iowa and perhaps one of the most visible changes came in the political arena. During the 1840's, most Iowans voted Democratic although the state also contained some Whigs. Iowa's first two United States Senators were Democrats as were most state officials. During the 1850s, however, the state's Democratic Party developed serious internal problems as well as being unsuccessful in getting the national Democratic Party to respond to their needs. Iowans soon turned to the newly emerging Republican Party the political career of James Grimes illustrates this change. In 1854, Iowans elected Grimes governor on the Whig ticket. Two years later, Iowans elected Grimes governor on the Republican ticket. Grimes would later serve as a Republican United States Senator from Iowa. Republicans took over state politics in the 1850s and quickly instigated several changes. They moved the state capital from Iowa City to Des Moines, they established the University of Iowa and they wrote a new state constitution. From the late 1850s until well into the twentieth century, Iowans remained strongly Republican. Iowans sent many highly capable Republicans to Washington, particularly William Boyd Allison of Dubuque, Jonathan P. Dolliver of Ft. Dodge, and Albert Baird Cummins of Des Moines. These men served their state and their nation with distinction.

Another political issue facing Iowans in the 1860s was the issue of women's suffrage. From the 1860s on, Iowa contained a large number of women, and some men, who strongly supported the measure and who worked endlessly for its adoption. In keeping with the general reform mood of the latter 1860s and 1870s, the issue first received serious consideration when both houses of the General Assembly passed a women's suffrage amendment in 1870. Two years later, however, when the legislature had to consider the amendment again before it could be submitted to the general electorate, interest had waned, opposition had developed, and the amendment was defeated.

For the next 47 years, Iowa women worked continually to secure passage of a women's suffrage amendment to Iowa's state constitution. During that time, the issue was considered in almost every session of the state legislature, but an amendment was offered (having passed both houses of the state legislature in two consecutive sessions) to the general electorate only once, in 1916. In that election, voters defeated the amendment by about 10,000 votes.

The arguments against women's suffrage ranged from the charge that women were not interested in the vote to the charge that women's suffrage would bring the downfall of the family and would cause delinquency in children. Regarding the defeat of the 1916 state referendum on the female vote, Iowa-born Carrie Chapman Catt, a leader for the women's suffrage cause, argued that the liquor interests in the state should accept responsibility as they had worked hard to defeat the measure. During the long campaign to secure the vote, however, the women themselves were not always in agreement as to the best approach to secure a victory. Catt herself led the final victorious assault in 1918 and 1919 in Washington with her "winning plan." This called for women to work for both state (state constitutions) and national (national constitution) amendments. Finally, in 1920, after both houses of the United States Congress passed the measure and it had been approved by the proper number of states, woman's suffrage became a reality for American women everywhere.

Iowa: Home for Immigrants
While Iowans were debating the issues of women's suffrage in the post Civil War period, the state itself was attracting many more people. Following the Civil War, Iowa's population continued to grow dramatically, from 674,913 people in 1860 to 1,194,020 in 1870. Moreover, the ethnic composition of Iowa's population also changed substantially. Before the Civil War, Iowa had attracted some foreign-born settlers, but the number remained small. After the Civil War, the number of immigrants increased. In 1869, the state encouraged immigration by printing a 96-page booklet entitled Iowa : The Home of Immigrants . The publication gave physical, social, educational, and political descriptions of Iowa. The legislature instructed that the booklet be published in English, German, Dutch, Swedish, and Danish.

Iowans were not alone in their efforts to attract more northern and western Europeans. Throughout the nation, Americans regarded these new comers as "good stock" and welcomed them enthusiastically. Most immigrants from these countries came in family units. Germans constituted the largest group, settling in every county within the state. The great majority became farmers, but many also became craftsmen and shopkeepers. Moreover, many German-Americans edited newspapers, taught school, and headed banking establishments. In Iowa, Germans exhibited the greatest diversity in occupations, religion, and geographical settlement.

The Marx Goettsch family of Davenport serves well as an example of German immigrants. At the time of his emigration in 1871, Goettsch was 24 years old, married and the father of a young son. During a two-year term in the German Army, Goettsch had learned the trade of shoemaking. Goettsch and his family chose to settle in Davenport, among Germans from the Schleswig-Holstein area. By working hard as a shoemaker, Goettsch managed not only to purchase a building for his home and shop, but also to purchased five additional town lots. Later, Goettsch had homes built on the lots which he rented out. He had then become both a small business man and a landlord.

During the next 25 years, Goettsch and his wife, Anna, raised six children and enjoyed considerable prosperity. For Marx and Anna, life in America, surrounded by fellow German-Americans, did not differ greatly from life in the old country. For their children, however, life was quite different. The lives of the Goettsch children - or the second generation - best illustrate the social and economic opportunities available to immigrants in the United States. If the family had remained in Germany, probably all five sons would have followed their father's occupation of shoemaker. In the United States, all five pursued higher education. Two sons received Ph.D.s, two sons received M.D.s, and one son became a professional engineer. With the third generation, education was also a crucial factor. Of seven grandchildren, all became professionals. Moreover, five of the seven were female. As the Goettsch experience indicates, opportunities abounded for immigrants settling in Iowa in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The newcomers and their children could take up land, go into business, or pursue higher education. For most immigrants, these areas offered a better, more prosperous life than their parents had known in the old country.

Iowa also attracted many other people from Europe, including Swedes, Norwegians, Danes, Hollanders, and many emigrants from the British Isles as shown by the following table. After 1900, people also emigrated from southern and eastern Europe. In many instances, immigrant groups were identified with particular occupations. The Scandinavians, including Norwegians, who settled in Winneshiek and Story Counties Swedes, who settled in Boone County and Danes, who settled in southwestern Iowa were largely associated with farming. Many Swedes also became coal miners. The Hollanders made two major settlements in Iowa, the first in Marion County, and the second in northwest Iowa.

Proportionately far more southern and eastern immigrants, particularly Italians and Croatians, went into coal mining than did western and northern Europeans. Arriving in Iowa with little money and few skills, these groups gravitated toward work that required little or no training and provided them with immediate employment. In Iowa around the turn of the century, that work happened to be coal mining.


蘭利號航空母艦 (CV-1)

到美國參加第一次世界大戰之前,朱比特號成為美國大西洋艦隊輔助艦戰隊的一員,巡弋於大西洋與墨西哥灣之間。1917年4月,該艦改隸於海軍火砲試驗基地(Naval Ordnance Test Station),並曾在1917年6月與1918年9月搭載部隊前往法國。休戰後,該艦前往歐洲海域擔任供煤的任務,以服務運送部隊返美的海軍艦隻。美國海軍於1919年7月11日決定將朱比特號改裝為航空母艦,於是該艦於1919年12月12日航抵維吉尼亞州的漢普頓錨地,並於1920年3月24日除役。

朱比特號於1920年4月11日更名為蘭利號,以榮耀美國航空先驅,物理與天文學家,同時也是萊特兄弟的競爭者塞繆爾·蘭利博士 [2] 。該艦同時被賦與一個新編號,即CV-1。蘭利號的改裝工程在諾福克港進行,1922年3月20日蘭利號重新服役,由肯尼斯·懷汀(Kenneth Whiting)中校任首任艦長。1922年10月17日,維吉爾·葛瑞芬(Virgil C. Griffin)上尉駕駛一架沃特 VE-7SF ( 英语 : Vought VE-7 ) 戰鬥機,第一次從艦上起飛。這次的起飛是美國海軍正式進入空權時代的重要事件。9天後,也就是10月26日, 戈弗雷·薛弗萊 ( 英语 : Godfrey Chevalier ) 少校駕駛一架 艾爾馬林39B型水上飛機 ( 英语 : Aeromarine 39 ) 首次降落在蘭利號的甲板。11月18日,懷汀中校駕駛一架PT水上飛機首次從航空母艦上彈射起飛。 [3]

日本偷襲珍珠港時,蘭利號正泊碇在菲律賓的甲米地。日軍進攻菲律賓時,蘭利號先撤退至荷屬東印度的巴厘巴板港,再撤到澳洲的達爾文港,並成為美国-英国-荷兰-澳大利亚司令部的海上武力之一。蘭利號先協助澳洲皇家空軍的反潛巡邏任務,之後前往西澳的費利曼圖港,搭載33名陸軍航空隊飛行員,與32架已組裝完成,屬於第49驅逐大隊的P-40战斗机,2月22日出發前往爪哇島的芝拉扎港(Tjilatjap)。另一艘貨輪 海洋女巫號 ( 英语 : MS Sea Witch (1940) ) 則搭載其它27架未組裝的P-40战斗机,跟蘭利號一同出發。 [4]

本来蘭利號收到的命令是在2月28日清晨進入港口,這樣可以在夜色的掩護下前進,並避開日本飛機的可能的攻擊。但由於日本的攻擊部隊已經接近爪哇,於是ABDA的海軍指揮官,也是爪哇地區的指揮官,荷蘭籍海軍中將康拉德·赫爾弗里希於2月23日要求蘭利號盡速將飛機運抵芝拉扎港。但由於燃料問題使得蘭利號的航速只有10節,加上通讯出现問題,讓蘭利號在27日凌晨改變方向去與護航船隻會合,使得蘭利號需要在27日的白天駛進爪哇港。27日上午9:00左右被日機發現,蘭利號艦長羅伯特·麥克康奈爾(Robert P. McConnell)中校曾提出空中掩護的要求,但並無回音。中午11:40,在離芝拉扎港南方120公里處,蘭利號遭到9架一式陸攻機的攻擊,它被擊中五次以及兩個近接彈,造成16人陣亡,並引發大火。由於火勢蔓延及兰利号进水並傾斜了10度,由於動力系統泡水停擺且吃水過深,蘭利號被判斷無法抵達爪哇芝扎拉港,蘭利號在下午13:32分發出棄船命令,為了避免其落入日本海軍手中,護航的兩艘驅逐艦把乘員救起後,一共以九發4英寸炮彈與兩枚魚雷將蘭利號擊沉 [5] 。


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