Por que houve tantas mortes de militares dos EUA fora das principais batalhas na 2ª Guerra Mundial?

Por que houve tantas mortes de militares dos EUA fora das principais batalhas na 2ª Guerra Mundial?


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Recentemente, comecei a ter um grande interesse na 2ª Guerra Mundial. Venho pesquisando novas informações todos os dias sobre isso. Mas uma das coisas que me interessa é o número de mortes que cada país sofreu durante a guerra. Estou mais interessado nas mortes dos EUA na 2ª Guerra Mundial.

O número de mortes de militares para os EUA foi de 417.000 durante a guerra. E recentemente estimei que cerca de 1/3 das mortes foram causadas por grandes batalhas nas ilhas do Japão e na Europa. Mas isso ainda deixa 2/3 das mortes que não foram causadas por grandes conflitos. Como essas mortes fora das batalhas principais ocorreram? Esses números que recebi são apenas estimativas. A maioria das fontes que encontrei dizia 417.000. Somei todas as principais mortes em batalha para nós e obtive o número 140.000, mas provavelmente não é o número mais preciso. Então eu acho que 1/3 é mais preciso. E as batalhas de que estou falando são como Iwo jima e como a batalha da protuberância. Batalhas que tiveram muitas mortes envolvendo a nós.


Em quase todas as guerras, a maioria das mortes não ocorre nas batalhas principais. Na guerra do Pacífico a que você se refere, a maioria das mortes nos Estados Unidos ocorreu em minas, más condições climáticas, acidentes e doenças. Além disso, os japoneses perderam mais navios para as minas do que em combate. Este é um padrão geral em todos os conflitos armados.


Além de acidentes e doenças mencionados em outras respostas, houve muitas mortes em combate fora das grandes batalhas. "Minas" eram uma razão. Além disso, houve muitas pequenas ações fora das grandes batalhas. Os exércitos faziam "patrulhas" e as lutas irrompiam entre pequenos grupos. Normalmente haveria muito fogo de artilharia (mais, talvez na Primeira Guerra Mundial do que na Segunda Guerra Mundial) entre as batalhas que matariam soldados. Soldados seriam mortos por "bombardeios" (e aviadores por antiaéreos) entre as batalhas. Soldados eram mortos "em movimento", eles desmoronavam e morriam nas fileiras, e havia mortes relacionadas a veículos "em marcha". (Alguns seriam classificados como "acidentes", mas se ocorressem no caminho para a batalha, ou pior, na retirada, seriam relacionados ao "combate".)

As grandes batalhas acontecem quando ocorre a "maioria" das mortes (em combate), não quando todas elas ocorrem. A luta e a matança não param apenas porque a batalha acabou; ele apenas vai de intensidade "alta" para intensidade "baixa". Dito de outra forma, a "guerra" dura 365 dias por ano, enquanto as "batalhas" podem ocupar um múltiplo de dez dias (para uma determinada unidade). Esses dias de batalha representam uma minoria do tempo de combate, embora uma quantidade desproporcional de mortes aconteça durante esses dias.


Coffin on Wheels: Por que o tanque Sherman foi uma armadilha mortal total

O M-4 Sherman foi o carro-chefe do tanque médio do Exército e do Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais dos EUA durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Ele lutou em todos os teatros de operação - Norte da África, Pacífico e Europa.

O Sherman era conhecido por sua confiabilidade mecânica, por suas peças padronizadas e construção de qualidade na linha de montagem. Era espaçoso, fácil de consertar e de dirigir. Deveria ser o tanque ideal.

Mas o Sherman também era uma armadilha mortal.

A maioria dos tanques da época funcionava com diesel, um combustível mais seguro e menos inflamável do que a gasolina. O motor do Sherman era um motor a gasolina de 400 cavalos que, combinado com a munição a bordo, poderia transformar o tanque em um inferno infernal após ser atingido.

Bastou um adversário alemão como o imponente tanque Tiger com seu canhão de 88 milímetros. Uma rodada poderia perfurar a armadura comparativamente fina do Sherman. Se tivessem sorte, os cinco tripulantes do tanque poderiam ter segundos para escapar antes de queimarem vivos.

Daí o apelido sombrio de Sherman - Ronson, como o isqueiro, porque "ele acende na primeira vez, todas as vezes".

No novo filme Fury, um único tanque Tiger devasta um pelotão de Shermans que avançava pela Alemanha. Gus Stavros, um veterano da Segunda Guerra Mundial que testemunhou um combate real entre um Sherman e um Tiger fora da cidade de Nennig, na Alemanha, disse que a realidade da batalha campal entre os dois tanques era igualmente horrível.

“Se você viu filmes em que as pessoas saem do tanque em chamas, eu vi isso”, disse Stavros durante uma entrevista em vídeo para uma história oral de combate patrocinada pelo National Endowment for the Humanities.

“O tanque alemão tinha um canhão 88- [milímetro] e simplesmente explodiu o tanque do General Sherman até que não sobrou nada além de fumaça e fogo.”

A perda de homens e máquinas é difícil de entender. Simplificando, no calor da batalha, era tão perigoso dentro de um tanque Sherman quanto fora dele.

“A 3ª Divisão Blindada entrou em combate na Normandia com 232 tanques M-4 Sherman”, escreve Belton Cooper, autor de Death Traps, um estudo das divisões blindadas dos EUA e suas batalhas na Europa durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial.

“Durante a Campanha Europeia, a Divisão teve cerca de 648 tanques Sherman completamente destruídos em combate e teve outros 700 nocauteados, reparados e colocados novamente em operação. Esta foi uma taxa de perda de 580 por cento. ”

No entanto, a força do Sherman estava em seus números. Foi mais um exemplo das proezas industriais dos Estados Unidos durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, uma época em que os operários e a produção da fábrica fizeram tanto para vencer a guerra para os Aliados quanto os soldados, marinheiros e aviadores em batalha.

Empresas como a Pullman Car Co. e a Ford Motors produziram quase 50.000 Shermans, o segundo tanque mais produzido durante a guerra. Somente a União Soviética superou os EUA na produção de tanques na época, com a fabricação do lendário T-34.

Em comparação, o Tiger - claramente o tanque superior quando comparado ao Sherman - era feito de materiais caros, laboriosamente montados e de operação cara. Os alemães fabricaram pouco mais de 1.300 tigres.

O Tiger superou o Sherman, mas os Estados Unidos sempre tiveram outro Sherman para colocar em campo.

Se havia outra tripulação de tanque treinada para tripular o Sherman era mais problemático. Mas, apesar de todos os seus problemas, os soldados de infantaria sempre ficavam felizes quando um Sherman chegava.

Os papéis comuns incluíam apoio de infantaria - muitas vezes, os soldados se empilhariam em longas filas atrás de Shermans enquanto os tanques avançavam em campos abertos, liderando o ataque e permitindo balas de bloqueio de blindagem disparadas de metralhadoras MG-42 alemãs ou de armas pequenas de soldados inimigos .

O Sherman tinha um poder de fogo decente. Embora seu canhão de 75 milímetros fosse menos potente do que os canhões de tanque alemães, ele ainda podia disparar projéteis altamente explosivos que destruiriam prédios que abrigam as tropas alemãs.

Armas adicionais incluíam duas metralhadoras M1919 Browning calibre .30 e uma Browning .50 calibre M2 em uma torre coaxial. Ambas as armas podem destruir a infantaria alemã ou destruir ninhos de metralhadoras.

No Pacífico, os fuzileiros navais implantaram Shermans equipados com lança-chamas para destruir as posições defensivas japonesas. Nos últimos meses da guerra, quando os obstinados soldados japoneses raramente se rendiam, bombardear casamatas muitas vezes não impedia o fogo fulminante dirigido às tropas americanas.

Shermans modificados para transmitir napalm através dos canos de seus canhões atingiram as fortalezas japonesas com jatos de chamas apontados para as portas de canhão inimigas.

Apesar de seus muitos pontos fracos, o tanque Sherman se tornou um esteio para os militares dos EUA e as forças armadas em todo o mundo.

O tanque Sherman permaneceu em serviço no Exército e no Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, e entrou em ação durante a Guerra da Coréia. Mesmo depois que os Estados Unidos substituíram o Sherman pelo tanque de batalha principal M48 Patton durante os anos 1950, o Sherman serviu com aliados dos EUA até os anos 1970.

Os “Super Shermans” fortemente modificados até mesmo viram combate com a Força de Defesa de Israel durante a Guerra dos Seis Dias em 1967 e a Guerra do Yom Kippur em 1973.

Este artigo de Paul Richard Huard foi publicado originalmente na War is Boring em 2014.


1 batalha mais sangrenta

A Batalha de Gettysburg, considerada a mais importante da guerra, foi de longe a mais sangrenta e custou à nação aproximadamente 51.000 vidas. A batalha foi uma tremenda derrota para a Confederação, que estava convencida da vitória. O Exército da União ainda sofreu perdas tremendas na batalha, com baixas que somam cerca de 23.000.

Outras batalhas sangrentas incluíram a Batalha de Chickamauga, que ocorreu no sudeste do Tennessee e teve um número de mortos de 34.624, e a Batalha de Spotsylvania, que ceifou 30.000 vidas. Grande parte do número surpreendentemente grande de mortos no campo de batalha pode ser atribuído ao fato de que a tecnologia militar mais recente - ou seja, armas mais mortais - foi combinada com o estilo tático militar mais antigo, produzindo um número sem precedentes de baixas. Embora o Sul tivesse quase o alistamento completo e, no final das contas, perdido menos vidas no decorrer da guerra, eles foram superados em número pelos soldados do Norte e, por fim, forçados a se render, encerrando a guerra.


6 razões pelas quais a batalha de Iwo Jima é tão importante para os fuzileiros navais

Nenhum relato histórico da Segunda Guerra Mundial estaria completo sem cobrir a Batalha de Iwo Jima.

À primeira vista, parece semelhante a muitas outras batalhas que aconteceram no final da Guerra do Pacífico: as tropas americanas lutaram ferozmente por meio de armadilhas explosivas, ataques de Banzai e ataques surpresa enquanto fortes defensores japoneses lutavam contra o poder dos EUA no ar, em terra e no mar.

Para o Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais dos Estados Unidos, no entanto, a Batalha de Iwo Jima foi mais do que mais uma ilha em uma série de batalhas em uma campanha de salto de ilha. A Guerra do Pacífico foi uma das mais brutais da história da humanidade, e em nenhum lugar isso foi mais aparente do que em Iwo Jima em fevereiro de 1945.

Depois de três anos de luta, as tropas dos EUA não sabiam que o fim do Império Japonês estava próximo. Para eles, cada ilha fazia parte da preparação necessária para invadir o Japão continental.

A luta de 36 dias por Iwo Jima levou o almirante Chester Nimitz a dar o elogio agora imortal, "Valor incomum era uma virtude comum."

Aqui estão seis razões pelas quais a batalha é tão importante para os fuzileiros navais:

1. Foi a primeira invasão das ilhas japonesas.

O Império Japonês controlava muitas ilhas na área do Pacífico. Saipan, Peleliu e outras ilhas foram vendidas ao Japão após a Primeira Guerra Mundial ou receberam o controle delas pela Liga das Nações. Então, começou a invadir outros.

Iwo Jima era diferente. Embora tecnicamente longe das ilhas japonesas, é considerada parte de Tóquio e é administrada como parte de sua subprefeitura.

Depois de três anos assumindo o controle de ilhas anteriormente capturadas pelos japoneses, os fuzileiros navais estavam finalmente tomando parte da capital japonesa.

2. Iwo Jima era estrategicamente necessário para o esforço de guerra dos Estados Unidos.

Tomar a ilha significou mais do que uma captura simbólica da pátria japonesa. Isso significava que os EUA poderiam lançar bombardeios a partir dos aeródromos estratégicos de Iwo Jima, já que a pequena ilha estava diretamente sob a rota de voo das superforças B-29 de Guam, Saipan e das Ilhas Marianas.

Agora, as Forças Aéreas do Exército seriam capazes de fazer bombardeios sem uma guarnição japonesa em Iwo Jima alertando o continente sobre o perigo que viria. Também significava que bombardeiros americanos poderiam sobrevoar o Japão com escoltas de caças.

3. Foi uma das batalhas mais sangrentas da história do Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais.

Iwo Jima é uma pequena ilha, que cobre cerca de oito milhas quadradas. Foi defendido por 20.000 soldados japoneses que passaram um ano cavando, criando quilômetros de túneis sob a rocha vulcânica, e que estavam prontos para lutar até o último homem.

Quando a batalha acabou, 6.800 americanos estavam mortos e outros 26.000 feridos ou desaparecidos. Isso significa que 850 americanos morreram para cada quilômetro quadrado da fortaleza da ilha. Apenas 216 soldados japoneses foram feitos prisioneiros.

4. Mais bravura estava em exibição em Iwo Jima do que em qualquer outra batalha antes ou depois.

Iwo Jima viu mais medalhas de honra concedidas por ações lá do que qualquer outra batalha na história americana. Um total de 27 foram atribuídos, 22 para fuzileiros navais e cinco para militares da Marinha. Em toda a Segunda Guerra Mundial, apenas 81 fuzileiros navais e 57 marinheiros receberam a medalha.

Para colocar em uma perspectiva estatística, 20% de todas as medalhas de honra da Marinha e dos Fuzileiros Navais da Segunda Guerra Mundial foram conquistadas em Iwo Jima.

5. Os fuzileiros navais dos EUA eram fuzileiros navais e nada mais em Iwo Jima.

Os EUA viram problemas significativos com as relações raciais em sua história. E embora as forças armadas não estivessem totalmente integradas até 1948, os militares dos EUA sempre estiveram na vanguarda da integração racial e de gênero. Os fuzileiros navais de Iwo Jima vieram de todas as origens.

Embora os afro-americanos ainda não fossem autorizados a cumprir tarefas na linha de frente por causa da segregação, eles pilotaram caminhões anfíbios cheios de fuzileiros navais brancos e latinos para as praias de Iwo Jima, transportaram munição e suprimentos para o front, enterraram os mortos e lutaram contra ataques surpresa dos defensores japoneses . Os Navajo Code Talkers foram fundamentais para tomar a ilha. Eles eram todos fuzileiros navais.

6. O icônico hasteamento da bandeira tornou-se o símbolo de todos os fuzileiros navais que morreram em serviço.

A foto do fotógrafo da Associated Press, Joe Rosenthal, de fuzileiros navais erguendo a bandeira no Monte Suribachi de Iwo Jima é talvez uma das fotos de guerra mais conhecidas já tiradas. O hasteamento da bandeira americana no ponto mais alto da ilha enviou uma mensagem clara aos fuzileiros navais abaixo e aos defensores japoneses. Nos anos que se seguiram, a imagem assumiu um papel mais importante.

Logo se tornou o símbolo do próprio Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais. Quando o Memorial do Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais foi dedicado em 1954, foi essa imagem que se tornou o símbolo do espírito do Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais, dedicado a todos os fuzileiros navais que deram sua vida a serviço dos Estados Unidos.


7 assassinatos importantes da máfia [Aviso: fotos horríveis]

Siegel, em um esforço para se reinventar e se legitimar, mudou-se para Las Vegas para supervisionar a construção do resort Flamingo. Ele falhou miseravelmente no trabalho e foi assassinado poucos meses depois que o cassino quase faliu. Enquanto lia o Los Angeles Times, Siegel foi baleado várias vezes através de uma janela por uma Carabina M1 militar calibre .30. O crime não foi solucionado, mas seu fracasso em Las Vegas me deixou desconfiado. Um memorial a Bugsy ainda está localizado no Flamingo Hotel, perto da capela do casamento.

2. Massacre do Dia de São Valentim

Assassinado: Peter Gusenberg, Frank Gusenberg, Albert Kachellek, Adam Heyer, Reinhart Schwimmer, Albert Weinshank, John May

Comprometido por uma série de razões, (incluindo tentar incapacitar a Gangue North Side e em retaliação a Bugs Moran - líder da Gangue North Side - “invadindo” a pista de cães de Al Capone nos subúrbios de Chicago) o Massacre do Dia de São Valentim foi o pior golpe de máfia já visto nos EUA. Conseguiu impedir a Gangue do Lado Norte, mas também tornou a vida muito mais difícil para Capone. Insetos Moran escapou do golpe porque um dos vigias confundiu um dos homens de Moran com Moran. Quatro homens realizaram o massacre, dois vestidos com gabardines e dois com uniformes da polícia. Alguns dizem que Moran fugiu ao ver a polícia entrando no prédio, poupando sua vida.

3. “Metralhadora” Jack McGurn

Assassinado: “Machine Gun” Jack McGurn (nascido Vincenzo Antonio Gibaldi)

McGurn foi morto a tiros, enquanto jogava boliche, por três homens com metralhadoras. A identidade dos pistoleiros e o motivo não são conhecidos. No entanto, duas teorias são amplamente aceitas: 1) Vingança pelo suposto envolvimento de McGurns no massacre do Dia dos Namorados. 2) Silenciando o bebedor pesado e fanfarrão McGurn pela gangue South Side. Curiosamente, um poema foi encontrado em sua mão direita e um níquel na esquerda. (McGurn era conhecido por colocar moedas nas mãos de sua vítima)

4. Albert “O Chapeleiro Maluco” Anastasia

Assassinado: Albert “O Chapeleiro Maluco” Anastasia (nascido Umberto Anastasio)

O chefe brutal e violento da máfia da família Mangano / Gambino foi derrubado enquanto estava em sua cadeira de barbeiro. Seu guarda-costas convenientemente deu um passeio quando dois homens armados mascarados invadiram a loja e abriram fogo contra Anastasia. Eles continuaram a atirar até que ele caiu morto no chão, e então atiraram nele à queima-roupa na parte de trás da cabeça. Acredita-se que Larry e Joe Gallo executaram o assassinato sob um contrato de Don Vito Genovese. A esposa de Anastasia manteve sua inocência em relação a qualquer envolvimento com a máfia ou violência e queria que ele fosse lembrado como um marido e pai amoroso e dedicado, frequentador da igreja. Okay, certo.

5. Carmine “Charuto / Lilo” Galante

Assassinado: Carmine “Cigar / Lilo” Galante, Leonard Coppola, Guiseppe Turano

Galante estava almoçando no restaurante Joe and Mary's quando três homens entraram e começaram a atirar. Cesare Bonventre, um dos recrutas da máfia de Galante, não fez nada para impedir o assassinato e deixou o restaurante calmamente. “Charuto” criou o negócio moderno do tráfico de drogas e começou a ficar cada vez mais com o dinheiro das drogas de seus chefes. Galente recentemente pediu à comissão governante da Máfia se ele poderia se aposentar. Seu pedido foi atendido, mas então soube-se que ele tinha 30 “greenies” (novos recrutas do velho país) trabalhando para ele. A comissão da máfia teria se reunido novamente e decidido que era hora de Galante se aposentar definitivamente. O legado do tráfico de drogas e crimes associados deixou Bushwick, Brooklyn em ruínas por décadas após seu assassinato.

6. Paul “Big Paul” Castellano

Assassinado: Paul “Big Paul” Castellano (nascido Constantino Paul Castellano), Tommy Bilotti

Big Paul ficou com ciúmes do tráfico de drogas de John Gotti e ameaçou matar qualquer pessoa envolvida com narcóticos. Ele também havia adquirido inimigos quando não compareceu ao funeral de Aneillo “Neil” Dellacroce, um de seus subchefes, e então nomeou Tommy Bilotti, um guarda-costas, como um novo subchefe, apesar da falta de habilidade de Bilotti para o trabalho. Castellano e Bilottie foram mortos a tiros do lado de fora de uma churrascaria por ordem de John Gotti. Os homens foram atraídos para lá com a promessa de ter uma conversa com Gotti para "resolver as coisas".

7. Angelo "The Gentle Don" Bruno

Assassinado: Angelo “The Gentle Don” Bruno (nascido Angelo Annaloro)

Angelo Bruno foi morto por um único tiro na nuca enquanto estava sentado em seu carro. Ele havia desenvolvido muitos inimigos lucrando com o mercado de heroína na Filadélfia, enquanto outras famílias eram impedidas de distribuir narcóticos. Antonio Caponigro (também conhecido como Tony Bananas) ordenou a matança, mas ele próprio foi morto poucas semanas depois em retaliação. Notas de dólar foram encontradas enfiadas em sua boca e (cubra os olhos) ânus - para simbolizar a ganância. A Família Filadélfia entrou em declínio após a morte de Bruno.


Segunda Guerra Mundial: Entrevista com o Major Richard M. Gordon & # 8212 Bataan Death March Survivor

Às 12h30 em 9 de abril de 1942, o brigadeiro-general Edward King, oficial comandante em Bataan, nas Filipinas, rendeu-se aos japoneses. Os vitoriosos japoneses então forçaram mais de 10.000 sobreviventes americanos e 65.000 filipinos da guarnição de Bataan & # 8217s a marchar 100 quilômetros em um calor escaldante de Mariveles a San Fernando. Já cansados ​​de meses de luta, os filipinos e americanos também sofriam de malária, fome e sede. Aqueles que caíram ao longo do caminho foram espancados e espancados & # 8211 frequentemente até a morte & # 8211 por seus captores. Seiscentos a 650 americanos e 5.000 a 10.000 filipinos morreram na jornada.

Em San Fernando, os sobreviventes foram amontoados em vagões de trem lacrados e sufocantes, nos quais muitos outros morreram. Quando os homens chegaram quatro horas depois em Capas, província de Tarlac, eles foram forçados a se deter e começar uma caminhada de 10 quilômetros até o acampamento O & # 8217Donnell. Durante os primeiros 40 dias de prisão, cerca de 1.570 americanos morreram de desnutrição, doenças e espancamentos. Mais de 25.000 filipinos morreram em cerca de quatro meses, até que os japoneses começaram a dar liberdade condicional ao pessoal do exército filipino em julho de 1942. Mas os escoteiros filipinos, que faziam parte do exército dos EUA, foram mantidos em cativeiro.

Em 6 de junho de 1942, os sobreviventes americanos do acampamento O & # 8217Donnell & # 8211 com exceção de cerca de 500, que foram detidos principalmente para detalhes de sepultamento & # 8211 se mudaram mais uma vez, para o acampamento Cabanatuan. Cerca de 3.000 americanos morreriam lá, principalmente devido aos efeitos prolongados dos combates em Bataan, a Marcha da Morte e o Acampamento O & # 8217Donnell.

O Major Richard M. Gordon, Exército dos EUA (aposentado), foi um defensor de Bataan e é um sobrevivente da Marcha da Morte, Camp O & # 8217Donnell, Camp Cabanatuan e três anos & # 8217 cativeiro em Mitsushima, Japão. Como fundador de um grupo conhecido como & # 8216Battling Bastards of Bataan & # 8217, cujo lema é & # 8216In Pursuit of Truth & # 8217, Gordon trabalhou duro para dissipar alguns dos mitos que cercam a infame Marcha da Morte.

& # 8216Menos de 1.000 sobreviventes de Bataan estão vivos hoje & # 8217, disse ele. & # 8216Em talvez 10 anos, todos eles terão desaparecido. A maioria, senão todos, gostariam de deixar para trás a verdade que era Bataan. Fazer menos desonraria os homens que morreram em Bataan, no Campo O & # 8217Donnell e Cabanatuan, a bordo dos navios do inferno que os levaram para o Japão e a Manchúria, e em campos de prisioneiros em todos esses países. & # 8217

Em uma entrevista com John P. Cervone, o Major Gordon relembrou esses acontecimentos terríveis.

História Militar: Como você chegou ao Bataan?

Gordon: Entrei para o Exército Regular em 5 de agosto de 1940. Quando me alistei, solicitei o 31º Regimento de Infantaria dos EUA em Manila. Fui enviado pela primeira vez para Fort Slocum, N.Y., onde recebemos algum treinamento introdutório. Fiquei lá até 7 de setembro de 1940. Na época, Fort Slocum era uma área de preparação para aqueles que iam em missões no exterior, incluindo Panamá, Porto Rico, Havaí e Filipinas. De Fort Slocum, nossa unidade foi levada de rebocador pelo rio Hudson até a Base do Exército do Brooklyn, onde embarcamos no transporte do Exército dos EUA Conceder em 14 de setembro, com destino às Filipinas. A viagem, contando uma escala de uma semana em Fort McDowell em San Francisco, durou 48 dias.

MH: O que você fez na chegada?

Gordon: Recebi treinamento básico em Manila. Fui designado para a Companhia F e morava no Quartel do Estado Mayor, antigo lar da cavalaria do exército espanhol quando ocupou as Filipinas em 1898. Na época, recebia $ 21 por mês, com um aumento para $ 30 depois de quatro meses.

MH: Como foi estar estacionado lá?

Gordon: Estar nas Filipinas antes da guerra era ótimo! Vivíamos muito como os soldados britânicos na Índia. Devido ao calor, treinamos apenas até o meio-dia, exceto quando em campo para o treinamento de selva. A pontaria do rifle durava duas semanas, uma vez por ano. A falta de fundos proibiu novos disparos. Essa foi nossa rotina por 15 meses antes do início da guerra.

MH: Qual foi a reação geral quando a guerra começou em 7 de dezembro de 1941?

Gordon: Sabíamos que a guerra estava chegando às Filipinas meses antes de acontecer, então não foi nenhuma surpresa. Como americanos, nos sentíamos imbatíveis e pensávamos que o conflito duraria pouco. Olhamos para o soldado japonês com desprezo & # 8211 claramente um erro.

MH: O que sua roupa fez nos primeiros dias da invasão?

Gordon: Em 10 de dezembro de 1941, minha unidade mudou-se para o campo de nosso posto em tempo de paz em Fort William McKinley. Seguimos para o norte com a Força de Luzon do Norte, então comandada pelo major-general Jonathan M. Wainwright, atuando como força de segurança para seu quartel-general e estado-maior. Em duas semanas, nossa unidade se dividiu em postos de comando avançado e traseiro [CPs]. Fui designado para o CP avançado. Nosso pelotão, sob o comando do tenente Henry G. Lee (um notável poeta da época), atuou como uma linha de escaramuça para enfrentar os infiltrados japoneses.

MH: Quando você se mudou para Bataan?

Gordon: Nós nos mudamos para a Península de Bataan na véspera do Ano Novo e # 8217s. A batalha por Bataan começou oficialmente em 2 de janeiro de 1942. Depois que assumimos nossa primeira grande linha de defesa, a linha PilarBagac, mantivemos nossa posição por quase dois meses. Os japoneses foram derrotados ao tentar quebrar essa linha e as coisas se acalmaram até a chegada de seus substitutos. Foi durante este período que Brig. O general Maxon S. Lough de Palo Alto, Califórnia, assumiu o comando da Divisão Filipina, da qual a 31ª fazia parte. Também foram iniciados eventos que preparariam o terreno para os próximos anos. Os Estados Unidos não puderam decidir se lutariam ou evacuariam as Filipinas. Em dezembro de 1941, o secretário da Guerra, Henry Stimson, foi questionado sobre os planos para Bataan e respondeu: & # 8216Há momentos em que os homens devem morrer. & # 8217 No início de janeiro, nossas rações foram cortadas pela metade e, em fevereiro, novamente reduzidas à metade. Em março, estávamos com 1.000 calorias por dia, comendo salmão e arroz. O quinino, usado para repelir a malária, desapareceu em 1º de março, e a disenteria estava em alta. Grande parte de nossa munição era da Primeira Guerra Mundial. De 10 granadas, três podem detonar. Tínhamos morteiros, mas nenhuma munição para eles.

MH: Quando a ofensiva japonesa voltou a sério?

Gordon: A pressão inimiga começou a crescer novamente em março de 1942, com a chegada de substitutos. Nossa divisão CP começou a retroceder regularmente & # 8211nós raramente detínhamos uma área por muito tempo. O general Lough nunca acreditou em deixar seu posto de comando antes do necessário. Como resultado, todas as noites éramos obrigados a estabelecer novas posições defensivas em torno do PC. Durante aquelas últimas noites em Bataan, muitas vezes ouvimos os japoneses tentando se infiltrar em nossas linhas. Certa manhã, o general Lough estava entrando em seu carro oficial no momento em que uma unidade de japoneses fez uma curva na estrada. Nós os diminuímos até que ele estivesse em segurança.

MH: Por quanto tempo você conseguiu segurar a linha?

Gordon: Permanecemos lá & # 8211 em várias linhas de resistência diferentes & # 8211 até o avanço japonês final em 3 de abril de 1942.

MH: Como você se sentiu com a rendição?

Gordon: Fui capturado & # 8211Eu não me rendi. A maioria dos meus colegas soldados sentiu como eu & # 8211que não poderíamos perder. Acreditávamos que era apenas uma questão de quando os reforços prometidos chegariam. Mentiram para nós & # 8211, mas por Washington, não pelo General Douglas MacArthur. Nunca sabíamos que a derrota era iminente até que nosso general comandante nos disse que havia se rendido. Na época, ninguém acreditou nele e, quando descobriram que era verdade, muitos choraram. Sentimos que realmente éramos & # 8216expensáveis. & # 8217 Durante uma sessão posterior do campo de prisioneiros realizada por nosso comandante da guarnição de Bataan, major-general Edward P. King, Jr., antes de ser enviado para Mukden, na Manchúria, ele disse nós tínhamos sido solicitados a estabelecer um bumbum para ganhar tempo. A metáfora do beisebol foi provavelmente a melhor maneira de explicar por que estávamos lá.

MH: Como você foi feito prisioneiro?

Gordon: O general Lough nos deu a palavra de rendição de nossa unidade. Depois de ouvir isso, acampamos em posições de combate no Monte Bataan, conhecido na época como Signal Hill. Um pequeno grupo de nós subiu ainda mais na montanha, em um esforço para evitar a rendição. Vários dias se passaram sem nenhum sinal do inimigo. Com fome e precisando de provisões, Co

rporal Elmer Parks (de Oklahoma) e eu nos dispomos a descer a colina até nossa última posição em busca de suprimentos. Elmer estava dirigindo e eu estava dirigindo uma espingarda em uma caminhonete Dodge. Recolhemos vários rifles Garand M1 em nossa posição anterior, deixados para trás pelos japoneses, que não queriam usá-los. Carregando os rifles a bordo do caminhão, decidimos ir um pouco mais adiante na estrada até onde outras unidades haviam estado. Descendo a estrada da montanha, encontramos uma enorme figueira-da-índia filipina, tão grande que servia como divisória da estrada. Quando nos aproximamos da árvore, um soldado japonês solitário segurando um rifle saiu de trás dela. Elmer parou a caminhonete e nos encaramos, sem saber o que fazer a seguir. A ideia de tentar correr ocorreu a nós dois, assim como a ideia de pegar um dos Garand M1s recém-adquiridos. Mas nenhum de nós fez nada além de olhar para o soldado japonês. Finalmente, ele acenou para que saíssemos da caminhonete. Naquele momento, mais 10 ou 15 japoneses saíram do mato ao longo da estrada. Eles certamente nos tinham em vista o tempo todo e provavelmente teriam gostado mais de atirar em nós do que de nos capturar e aumentar seu fardo. Essas eram tropas da linha de frente, vasculhando a área em busca de resistência inimiga. Assim que saímos do caminhão, eles se revezaram nos acertando com a coronha de seus rifles. Fomos revistados e todos os objetos de valor que tínhamos, como relógios de pulso, isqueiros e carteiras, foram levados. Na descida da montanha, vi nosso comandante de batalhão, major James Ivy, nu da cintura para cima e morto, com incontáveis ​​buracos de baioneta nas costas. Foi então que Elmer e eu sabíamos que estávamos em apuros.

MH: Como foi ser levado de volta pelos japoneses?

Gordon: Descendo a montanha, passamos por cadáveres de americanos e filipinos ao longo da estrada. O fedor era quase insuportável. Finalmente, quando escurecia, chegamos onde a estrada da montanha se nivelava com a Estrada Oeste de Bataan. Nossos captores nos entregaram a outro grupo de soldados. Incapazes de nos ver bem no escuro, eles apalparam nossos ombros e nos empurraram por uma abertura no mato ao longo da estrada. Mais tarde, descobrimos que a inspeção do ombro e colarinho era para determinar se o prisioneiro era um oficial. Se estava, foi chutado pela mesma abertura em vez de ser empurrado. Aquela noite foi tão escura e confusa que imediatamente perdi o contato com Elmer. Presumi que ele tinha morrido. Eu nunca o vi novamente até uma reunião 47 anos depois em Fort Sill, Okla.

MH: O que aconteceu durante sua primeira noite no cativeiro?

Gordon: Naquela noite, no acampamento, fomos revistados e espancados várias vezes na cabeça. Havia tantos homens aglomerados naquele campo que encontrar um lugar para se deitar era quase impossível. Acabei encontrando um local perto de uma & # 8216 latrina de campo & # 8217 & # 8211; na realidade, apenas uma vala aberta. Durante toda a noite, um fluxo de soldados doentes e enfermos percorreu o caminho até aquela trincheira repetidamente.

MH: Você pode descrever a marcha para fora de Bataan?

Gordon: No dia seguinte, provavelmente 11 ou 12 de abril, comecei a marchar para fora de Bataan. Nenhum dos meus colegas soldados era conhecido por mim, americano ou filipino. Nossa primeira marcha do dia & # 8217s nos levou até a famosa trilha Zig Zag, que parecia durar quilômetros e quilômetros até se nivelar em terreno plano. Mesmo assim, era a primeira etapa da marcha e estávamos em muito melhor forma do que em quatro ou cinco dias. Qualquer pessoa capturada ao norte de Mariveles teve a sorte de perder esta etapa tortuosa da marcha. Centenas de corpos estavam espalhados ao longo da trilha, homens que não podiam fazer a escalada íngreme. Durante essa escalada, vi uma velha amiga minha, a sargento Florence Hardesty. Ele me ensinou a andar de motocicleta pouco antes da guerra. Hardesty me lembrou do Lincoln Memorial em Washington, D.C., sentado, morto, contra uma espécie de parede. Ele estava totalmente coberto pela poeira branca que cobriu as árvores, a estrada e os manifestantes. Quase desmaiei e chorei. Hardesty era um velho soldado e pensei nele como uma figura paterna. Eu carrego sua imagem comigo desde que o vi pela primeira vez.

MH: O que aconteceu quando você chegou ao final da Trilha Zig Zag?

Gordon: We were momentarily elated when we reached the top of that climb–we actually felt we had the worst behind us. Walking became much easier. But depression soon set in when we discovered there was no food or water to be had. Some attempted escape on that second day others continued to fall, unable to keep up. These soldiers were shot, beheaded or bayoneted and left to die on the side of the road. Each night we were placed in a field and allowed to fend for ourselves. We expected water, if not food, but received neither. When dawn broke and we were put back on the road, a number of bodies were always left behind littering our sleeping field. In some ways, they were the lucky ones. Their miseries were over. For the rest of us our agonies had just begun.

MH: Is that the way the rest of the march went?

Gordon: Days went by with no change in the routine established by the Japanese. We would stop in an open field and be forced to take off our hats during the hottest part of the day while the Japanese had their lunch–ostensibly to assure that we did not hide contraband under them, but also a deliberate act to cause us more hardship. We were required to sit there for an hour or more. Those caught with Japanese money, diaries, photos or anything taken from dead Japanese soldiers–despite the warning to dispose of such items–were usually executed on the spot. Fortunately, I had absolutely nothing of value left, although those with nothing were often cuffed about the ears as punishment. On the third day we were marched backward and stopped alongside the road in daylight, in plain sight of Corregidor and the American guns. The guns of Corregidor opened up on the Japanese artillery positions alongside the road. We were being used as human shields. I saw a direct hit on a Japanese 105mm gun–it went up in the air like a toy. Score one for Corregidor! A number of prisoners were hit by the American gunfire, including me. I received a gash across my left leg, which surprisingly did not bleed that much. I covered it with my handkerchief, my last personal object.

MH: Where did you go from there?

Gordon: Days seemed to run together, and I lost track of time. Looking around during those first few days, I saw officers carrying duffel bags to hold their personal possessions. One lieutenant, named Olsen, walked by in his most prized possession, his riding boots. A day or so later, I passed Olsen’s duffel bag, with his name stenciled on it, on the side of road. The next day I passed his boots, which nobody seemed to want. Finally, on the third day I passed Olsen, dead on the side of the road. I was amazed that some officers tried to take things with them, adding to their burden of walking in the extreme heat and humidity. These items invariably led to their deaths.

MH: When did you reach a town or village?

Gordon: I don’t remember what day I arrived in Lubao. In that small town there was a sheet-metal warehouse about the size of a football field. Many prisoners were pushed inside the warehouse to sleep that night until there was room for no more. Unfortunately, I was among that group. There were so many men inside that place that sitting down, let alone lying down, was impossible. The heat beating down on that tin had sent the temperature soaring to 120 degrees and then some. Men stood all night, shoulder to shoulder, among the groans of the sick and dying. The next day dozens of men were carried out dead and left along the road as we began another day of the march. Everyone was dehydrated, with no chance to replenish the lost water.

MH: Where did you stop next?

Gordon: Within a day or two, I found myself in the town of San Fernando, a railroad junction in Pampanga province. Here again I had to sleep in the schoolhouse, with conditions almost equaling those in Lubao, but we were promised food the following morning. When morning came we were moved out, again without food or water, and put aboard the boxcars that would take us to Capas and Camp O’Donnell, our next destination.

MH: How did you survive?

Gordon: Words cannot really describe those days or the thousands of individual horrors. Suffice it to say, I went nine days without food and with very little water. My training as an infantryman paid off. I conserved water in my canteen by taking a sip, swishing it around in my mouth and letting a little drip down my throat. I would do this until I reached the next potable water spot. Others, untrained and dying for water, would prostrate themselves along the side of the road and drink water from puddles. All this water was contaminated with flies and fly feces and brought on death from dysentery. Thousands of Filipinos and several hundred Americans died this way. The Japanese beat any who attempted to break ranks and obtain water, killing a number of them in the process. Japanese tanks, moving south to take up positions to attack Corregidor as we marched north, would deliberately drive over the dead and dying on the side of the road.

MH: Did you and your colleagues try to help one another get through the march?

Gordon: No. There was a complete lack of assistance on the part of our fellow Americans. I did not witness a single act of kindness. The desire to survive overcame any idea of helping one another. I was a stretcher-bearer for a wounded officer, having volunteered to do so–out of sense of duty and responsibility. After one complete day of carrying the man, we could not get another four volunteers to relieve us, despite what amounted to begging on our part. That night, when compelled to stop, we left the officer to himself. He was later seen by a friend begging for help along the way. Even fellow officers who had originally carried him deserted him. I believe a lack of discipline led to this horrific situation. Most of our American soldiers had recently arrived in the Philippines, and very few had the discipline necessary for this.

MH: What was it like after you had completed the march?

Gordon: The train ride to Capas was another horrific experience, as men were jammed into each boxcar and the doors closed tightly. Men died standing up. One of our guards did open the door to let a little air in during the slow ride. Filipinos attempted to throw food into the car when it slowed down. Those standing in the doorway caught the food and ate all they could catch–nothing was passed back to anyone. Another instance of every man for himself. Arriving in Capas, we unloaded seven dead men from my car and proceeded to march another 10 kilometers to Camp O’Donnell.

MH: After having survived the Death March, how did you end up in Japan?

Gordon: Our first extended stop was in Camp O’Donnell, and it was there that I almost died from malaria. A buddy of mine, Fred Pavia of New Jersey, stole some quinine and saved my life, only to succumb to malaria and die himself three weeks later. My next ‘home’ was Camp Cabanatuan, where I was placed on the grave-digging detail. The guards at Cabanatuan placed the head of a soldier who attempted to escape on a 20-foot pole, which they marched down the center of the camp as a warning. Soon after this grim reminder, we prisoners were placed in groups of 10. If one man escaped, the remaining nine in his group were shot. My malaria returned at Cabanatuan, and I became so ill that an American doctor recommended I volunteer for a work party going to Japan. On his recommendation, I was moved to Bilibid Civil Prison in Manila on October 31, 1942, awaiting shipment to Japan. Housed in this prison was a complete dental unit that had been captured on Corregidor. Imagine, Army and Navy dentists, with all their equipment–including dental chairs–and clean starched uniforms! For a while we actually imagined we were back home in a dental clinic. Prisoners being moved to Japan were offered the chance to have their teeth checked. For me that meant a half-hour in a chair while two teeth were pulled and one was filled. In my three years in Japan, I never had a toothache.

MH: What was the voyage to Japan like?

Gordon: My ship, Nagato Maru, sailed on November 7, 1942. I was three decks below, in the pitch-black hold of the ship. For 20 days we suffered with no toilet facilities, save for five-gallon buckets that they would pass down to us every four or five hours. We were given rice and fish for the first few days and then just rice. Water was passed down in five-gallon drums once a day. Thirteen men died during that voyage. Just outside Manila we were attacked by a submarine. The Japanese took the few life preservers left in the hold and put them on

boxes containing the ashes of their own dead. We survived the attack, but by this time many were hoping a torpedo would have hit us.

MH: What awaited you in Japan?

Gordon: My new home was Mitsushima, a village in the town of Hiraoka, where I would spend the next three years–three years of misery, freezing every winter. We had no heat and scarce rations. We were employed as slave laborers, building a hydroelectric power dam, which is still in use today. Eventually, I was placed in charge of a 40-man work detail for a civilian contractor handling cement for the dam and was held responsible in every way for their actions. On one occasion a number of the men refused to do some extra work. We were all taken into the camp and forced to stand at attention until the main body of the prisoners returned. Then we were beaten in front of the inmates. I was placed in solitary confinement for three days and two nights because of my men’s refusal to work.

MH: Can you describe your feelings when you were released?

Gordon: I was returned to American military control on September 4, 1945, after more than 3 1/2 years of captivity. We were taken to Arai, a town on the Japanese coast. There we were met by U.S. Navy personnel wearing strange-looking helmets and carrying strange-looking weapons, which turned out to be M1 carbines. Placed in landing ships, we saw the American flag for the first time in more than three years. It was at that moment that I realized how much my country meant to me. We had placed our faith in our country, and our country had kept that faith by bringing us home. I don’t think there was a dry eye in the boat after seeing the Stars and Stripes. From that moment on, I was on a high and did not come down for a year.

MH: Corregidor has sometimes been associated with the Bataan Death March, but you have said that that is not true. Como assim?

Gordon: In 1982, a joint resolution of Congress honored the men of Bataan and Corregidor who made the Death March, but Congress was unaware that Corregidor had not surrendered until May 6, by which time the Death March was over. Nobody in its garrison participated in that march. For the past 40-odd years, many have assumed Bataan, Corregidor and the Death March to be interrelated. In fact, Corregidor had no connection with the Death March whatsoever.

MH: Any final comments on your experience?

Gordon: No one knows what freedom means until one loses it. Most Americans take it for granted, forgetting that thousands and thousands of their fellow Americans died to give them that freedom. We in Bataan paid our price for our country’s freedom, and most of us would do it all over again if we had to. Many returned sick and died shortly after the war. Many, even today, are seeking something from their country to ‘pay’ for their suffering. They, too, have forgotten that freedom is not free. For my part, I was a Regular Army soldier. I enlisted. I asked for the Philippines. Everything that happened was of my doing. I have no regrets, and my country does not owe me anything.


WW2 casualties in today's perspective

Why were both the axis and allies OK with suffering losses in the tens of millions?

Could you even imagine if today 500,000 American soldiers died over a couple years? What about 5-10 million? What about if Japan started killing 10,000 Chinese evey day?

After a few thousand losses, we'd be like "Dude , wtf? We surrender. this is insane." And with good reason.

Why the hell didn't Germany figure, we'll. we tried boys. wasn't meant to be, before they lost 6 million people?

Why were both the axis and allies OK with suffering losses in the tens of millions?

Could you even imagine if today 500,000 American soldiers died over a couple years? What about 5-10 million? What about if Japan started killing 10,000 Chinese evey day?

After a few thousand losses, we'd be like "Dude , wtf? We surrender. this is insane." And with good reason.

WWI Alone killed something in the high 10 million people (I don't know the exact number)

WWII was much higher, over 60 million I think.

Whatever the amount is too much. It's not that the Axis and allies were ok with it. It was and it is the nature of war: Good and bad people end up dead. Victory was measured by the amount of pain you were able to inflict (both infrastructure and human life) Tragic, people's lives treated no better than pawns on a giant chess table.

So much for being an "intelligent, civilized" species huh?

doctorj wrote:

Why were both the axis and allies OK with suffering losses in the tens of millions?

Could you even imagine if today 500,000 American soldiers died over a couple years? What about 5-10 million? What about if Japan started killing 10,000 Chinese evey day?

After a few thousand losses, we'd be like "Dude , wtf? We surrender. this is insane." And with good reason.

WWI Alone killed something in the high 10 million people (I don't know the exact number)

WWII was much higher, over 60 milhões I think.

Whatever the amount is too much. It's not that the Axis and allies were ok with it. It was and it is the nature of war: Good and bad people end up dead. Victory was measured by the amount of pain you were able to inflict (both infrastructure and human life) Tragic, people's lives treated no better than pawns on a giant chess table.

So much for being an "intelligent, civilized" species huh?

If your 60 million figure is correct, Soviets lost almost half of all WW2 deaths. Soviet military personnel killed, app. 8.5 million. Soviet citizens killed, app. 19 million, total, app. 27.5 million

How did Stalin keep Soviets from turning against him?

almost 1/2 were . escreveu:

How did Stalin keep Soviets from turning against him?

Stalin had already purged anyone in his circle who might turn on him. Plus the Russians overall had the choice of misery under Stalin or death under Hitler. Hard to go looking to complain to Uncle Joe when your house is burning and the Nazis are raping and murdering your family. Time to jump into a T-34 and get your land back.

The European powers had built global empires over the previous centuries when Germany and Japan were a collection of feudal states. By the time they arrived at the bargaining table there was no room left. So they went to work building lethal war machines to force the issue. Technology and propaganda mind control coupled together turned a cold shower (for the allied powers) into a infernal bloodbath.

It's been estimated that 32 million military & civilian deaths occurred in the Pacific campaign alone. o Batalha de Okinawa was the bloodiest battle of the campaign with most every Japanese soldier fighting to the death. And many civilians took up arms and fought to the death or committed suicide. The population of the island was almost completely decimated.

Why were both the axis and allies OK with suffering losses in the tens of millions?

Could you even imagine if today 500,000 American soldiers died over a couple years? What about 5-10 million? What about if Japan started killing 10,000 Chinese evey day?

After a few thousand losses, we'd be like "Dude , wtf? We surrender. this is insane." And with good reason.

Read accounts of what the Battle of Verdun was like (WWI). Then follow up with Battles of Ypres and Battle of the Somme. It will definitely make you believe people just lost their minds, and that those fellows fighting were a different breed of people than we have today. Can't imagine being in a trench, seeing a platoon go out, get mowed down, then your commander says "your turn."

I don't agree with the German's attaching America and Britain but I wish they beat the Russians in 1941/42 and then made a deal with Britain to stop fighting before the US went to Europe/North Africa to fight. It would have been epic to see Stalin captured and put in a zoo or something. He was crazy and he caused so many millions of deaths outside of WW2 alone. The USSR caused so much carnage even after WW2 and now we have crazy Putin. I'm tempted to go to the Kremlin and tell them what I think. If Germany started Operation Barbarossa a few months earlier and didn't go so easy when they reached Smolensk they could of destroyed Moscow before the freezing winter stopped them in 1941. There would be so much less carnage and we wouldn't have Putin right now.

I'm just thinking that people back then were much more in the "flight or fight" response mode. People now of all the major countries have enjoyed complete peace for their entire life, and they don't want to lose it.

Also, you are scared of the unknown. Back then, the psychopathic leaders played their power games as usual and as they do today. However, people were pretty unaware of what other countries were like. So they were afraid and more easily propagandized.

Life was just tougher in general, and once people made it to a decent stock in life they were not going to give it up. Whereas today we all take a basic sustainance as a given in life. We've never been through true hardship on a large scale.

I am afraid of a country like China, because they have been propaganized so much that they attach their country/history/people and their way of life into "One China". which is a recipe for a populous willing to wage wars for the oligarchy.

I could not see a modern US populous willing to give up 1 million casualties.

I don't agree with the German's attaching America and Britain but I wish they beat the Russians in 1941/42 and then made a deal with Britain to stop fighting before the US went to Europe/North Africa to fight. It would have been epic to see Stalin captured and put in a zoo or something. He was crazy and he caused so many millions of deaths outside of WW2 alone. The USSR caused so much carnage even after WW2 and now we have crazy Putin. I'm tempted to go to the Kremlin and tell them what I think. If Germany started Operation Barbarossa a few months earlier and didn't go so easy when they reached Smolensk they could of destroyed Moscow before the freezing winter stopped them in 1941. There would be so much less carnage and we wouldn't have Putin right now.

The Germans had NO chance of conquering the USSR, just as Japan had NO chance of defeating the U.S.. Tweaking their attack plan or execution is rearranging deck chairs on the Titanic. the Nazis lost the war the moment they crossed the Bug River in 1941.

I think there are several factors that can explain the insanity of how murderous WWII was.

First, people were just used to death back then. The Spanish Flu out break in 1918 killed about 675k in the US. That is about 250k more than the total US casualties in WWII. A lot of very treatable diseases and illnesses were fatal in the 1930s. And the industrial revolution made the workplace a very deadly place to be. So, having a young 21 year old get mowed down in some obscure battle during WWII wasn't as big of a shock as it would be today.

Second, the 19th century was chock full of war. It is no coincidence that the combatants in WW2 were all imperial powers of the 19th century that engaged in nearly continuous military combat during the 19th century. When Europeans weren't fighting each other they were carrying out bloody imperial conquests or suppressing rebellions. In the 19th century, when the US wasn't at war with itself, it was at war with Indian tribes. It was pretty much understood by the early 20th century that war was a part of life and every male would be a soldier in combat at some point.

Third, while there was a significant anti war movement in the US and Europe, it was quickly overrun by state run propaganda and anti-sedition laws. Eugene Debs was jailed for giving anti-war speeches during WWI. In Germany or Russia, you would not last long if you protested against the war.

Fourth, and finally, the more bloody the war got, the more determined everyone was to win. No one wanted to be the one to surrender or negotiate a peace treaty when so many lives had already been lost. Everyone was all in during WWII, which is why it was so deadly.

Fourth, and finally, the more bloody the war got, the more determined everyone was to win. No one wanted to be the one to surrender or negotiate a peace treaty when so many lives had already been lost. Everyone was all in during WWII, which is why it was so deadly.

I don't fully believe that everyone was "all-in" during WWII. Certainly France was never all-in, and it's pretty clear that Italy never really wanted to be there either. Once Germany took Poland in Sep '39, there was quite a lull before the rest of Europe got involved.

In WWI, all the major players were in and "throwing haymakers" in August 1914. Much more immediate and brutal start to the war.

As for why so many dead in WWII, the punishment on civilians was much, much higher than any other war. Obviously genocide was a large part of it, but so was constant aerial bombardment and the stealing of resources (Japan from China, Germany from Europe).

I don't agree with the German's attaching America and Britain but I wish they beat the Russians in 1941/42 and then made a deal with Britain to stop fighting before the US went to Europe/North Africa to fight. It would have been epic to see Stalin captured and put in a zoo or something. He was crazy and he caused so many millions of deaths outside of WW2 alone. The USSR caused so much carnage even after WW2 and now we have crazy Putin. I'm tempted to go to the Kremlin and tell them what I think. If Germany started Operation Barbarossa a few months earlier and didn't go so easy when they reached Smolensk they could of destroyed Moscow before the freezing winter stopped them in 1941. There would be so much less carnage and we wouldn't have Putin right now.

The Germans had NO chance of conquering the USSR, just as Japan had NO chance of defeating the U.S.. Tweaking their attack plan or execution is rearranging deck chairs on the Titanic. the Nazis lost the war the moment they crossed the Bug River in 1941.

That's just like your OPINION man.

I don't agree with the German's attaching America and Britain but I wish they beat the Russians in 1941/42 and then made a deal with Britain to stop fighting before the US went to Europe/North Africa to fight. It would have been epic to see Stalin captured and put in a zoo or something. He was crazy and he caused so many millions of deaths outside of WW2 alone. The USSR caused so much carnage even after WW2 and now we have crazy Putin. I'm tempted to go to the Kremlin and tell them what I think. If Germany started Operation Barbarossa a few months earlier and didn't go so easy when they reached Smolensk they could of destroyed Moscow before the freezing winter stopped them in 1941. There would be so much less carnage and we wouldn't have Putin right now.

Are you saying that you wish Hitler and his Nazi Germany was not defeated and that they kept all the territories they conquered up to 1941-42, like France, Neatherlands, Belgium, Poland, etc. etc.? That seems to be what you are saying, but it's so crazy that I want to make sure.

I don't agree with the German's attaching America and Britain but I wish they beat the Russians in 1941/42 and then made a deal with Britain to stop fighting before the US went to Europe/North Africa to fight. It would have been epic to see Stalin captured and put in a zoo or something. He was crazy and he caused so many millions of deaths outside of WW2 alone. The USSR caused so much carnage even after WW2 and now we have crazy Putin. I'm tempted to go to the Kremlin and tell them what I think. If Germany started Operation Barbarossa a few months earlier and didn't go so easy when they reached Smolensk they could of destroyed Moscow before the freezing winter stopped them in 1941. There would be so much less carnage and we wouldn't have Putin right now.

The Germans had NO chance of conquering the USSR, just as Japan had NO chance of defeating the U.S.. Tweaking their attack plan or execution is rearranging deck chairs on the Titanic. the Nazis lost the war the moment they crossed the Bug River in 1941. That's historically true - Germany was no match for the Soviet Union. The question has always been asked "what if" Germany did conquer Moscow in Operation Barborosa?

"But would the fall of Moscow have meant the defeat of the Soviet Union? Almost certainly not. In 1941 the Soviet Union endured the capture of numerous major cities, a huge percentage of crucial raw materials, and the loss of four million troops. Yet it still continued to fight. It had a vast and growing industrial base east of the Ural Mountains, well out of reach of German forces. And in Joseph Stalin it had one of the most ruthless leaders in world history—a man utterly unlikely to throw in the towel because of the loss of any city, no matter how prestigious."

"A scenario involving Moscow’s fall also ignores the arrival of 18 divisions of troops from Siberia—fresh, well-trained, and equipped for winter fighting. They had been guarding against a possible Japanese invasion, but a Soviet spy reliably informed Stalin that Japan would turn southward, toward the Dutch East Indies and the Philippines, thereby freeing them to come to the Moscow front. Historically, the arrival of these troops took the Germans by surprise, and an unexpected Soviet counteroffensive in early December 1941 produced a major military crisis. Surprised and disturbed, Hitler’s field commanders urged a temporary retreat in order to consolidate the German defenses. But Hitler refused, instead ordering that German troops continue to hold their ground. Historically they managed to do so. However, with German forces extended as far as Moscow and pinned to the city’s defense, this probably would not have been possible. Ironically, for the Germans, the seeming triumph of Moscow’s capture might well have brought early disaster."

In fact, Germany was ill-prepared to start a world-war. General Ludwig Beck, who was Chief of the German General Staff in 1938, felt that Germany needed more time to rearm before starting such a war. In his assessment, the earliest date Germany could risk a war was 1940, and any war started in 1938 would be a "premature war" that Germany would lose.

Of course, Hitler didn't listen and fired Beck, who was later involved and implicated in the assassination attempt on Hitler in 1944 (Operation Valkyrie) He was arrested and allowed to shoot himself to avoid torture by the Gestapo.


1. Japan’s Military Strength Went Weaker After The Defeat In The Midway’s Battle

The defeat of Midway’s battle had become a major wound on the imperialist Japanese Empire.

Japanese hoped that they would win the battle of Midway and to make it possible, their leaders Admiral Yamamoto, Nobutake Kondo, Chuichi Nagumo, e Tamon Yamaguchi had an amazing master plan.

Even, as per the plan, in the first phase of the battle, they fought using their full military capability.

But later as they expected, it didn’t happen.

Contrary, the game went against them. Mainly, US intelligence spoiled their entire plan.

The United States intelligence was already aware of their plan for Midway. They captured Japanese massages many days before.

As a result, Japan had to pay a big price.

During that four days battle, Japan lost the lives of 3057 experienced military personals four of their main aircraft carriers, named Akagi, Soryu, Kaga, and Hiryu got destroyed lost two destroyers name Arashio (in the bombing), Asashio 292 aircrafts got destroyed and faced many other major casualties.

After this battle, the military power of Japan reduced significantly. And therefore, their influence in WW2 also became much weaker.

2. Japan Also Lost The Hope of Controlling The Whole Pacific Region Alone

In the case of natural resources, Japan was always a poor country.

For a long time, they had been importing various natural resources including Oil, Coal from other countries mostly from Soviet Union, China, and the United States.

Before World War 2, they imported more than 50 percent of the resources from the United States.

But, from the late 1930s, they started taking expansionists policies against other countries, mainly against China.

To counter the Japanese aggression, the United States of America imposed some heavy economic sanctions against them.

Due to these economic embargoes, Japan started facing a lot of difficulties in meeting the shortage of natural resources.

However, they knew that the Pacific ocean was a massive source of natural resources.

Therefore, now to fulfill the need, they turned their motive to become the only emperor on the entire Pacific.

But there was a problem with their route and it was the United States of America.

Japan wanted somehow to end the United States’ influence from the Pacific.

As an act of its execution, on December 7th, 1941, the Japanese attacked the USA’s Pearl Harbor Island.

Here they succeed in causing devastating casualties, however failed to break the backbone of the US navy.

Hence again, with the same purpose, they also planned to attack Midway but somehow, this time, American intelligence already got information about that.

Earlier, the Japanese thought that after Midway’s attack, the USA would never be able to interfere in the Pacific region.

And using this opportunity, they would bring the US government to the table for peace negotiation.

But when the battle broke out, Japan had to face heavy defeat.

The defeat was so intense that it demolished their entire hope of controlling the whole Pacific alone.

Midway’s battle increased the US influence in the Pacific Ocean too much.

3. Allied Nations’ Morale Went Stronger To Win WW2

During World War 2 Japan, Italy, and Germany were fighting together against the Allied power nations.

Starting years of the War, there was a time came, when the Axis power was about to dominate the whole world.

But when Japan lost in the Midway’s battle and went weaker on the military side, then Allied nations’ morale went stronger.

It raised hope among Allied nations that they would win WW2. Because after this, Japan’s role did not remain as powerful as it was before.

4. The United States of America Became Much Stronger

After the decisive victory in the Midway battle, the United States of America became stronger than ever in WW2.

Their navy, Air force, and Ground military’s power and confidence went higher.

In 1945, the USA attacked Japan with Nuclear weapons.

The two atom bombs (Littleboy and Fatman), dropped in two of the main Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Within just three days, it caused the deaths of more than two hundred thousand Japanese people.


A Discussion about Sources ↑

Military statistics serve as the main sources: various armies originally published the following figures of soldiers killed. The exact origin of these statistics is key to any discussion of war losses, with four consequences.

First: As our main sources are armies, it is impossible to calculate war losses by nações ou empires. After the war, political leaders of new states tended to publish high figures of losses to show other nations how damaging the war had been for their people. But no one can say with any degree of certainty how many Poles or Czechs were killed. Some writers, though, tried to do just that. They first derived the number of Czech or Polish soldiers killed while wearing the Russian, German or Austro-Hungarian army uniforms based on the percentage of soldiers of each nationality within each imperial army. They then added these numbers to obtain, for example, the total Polish war dead. [1] This evaluation is highly problematic for three reasons. First, the definition of Polish territory varied between the three imperial armies, and does not coincide with Polish frontiers established in 1919. From what part of Poland did Polish soldiers come? Second, this evaluation made the assumption that Polish soldiers’ mortality rate was exactly the same as those of German or Russian soldiers. But this was just a hypothesis. It is impossible to ascertain whether Imperial Headquarters (German, Russian or Austro-Hungarian) engaged Polish soldiers as a matter of priority during battle, in order to preserve their own nationals, or, on the contrary, spared them out of distrust and fear of their possible connivance with the local population or their lack of fighting spirit. The German Headquarters preferred to send soldiers from Alsace to the Eastern rather than the Western Front. Incidentally, if one were to calculate French losses according to the same rules as Polish or Czech losses, one would include Alsatian soldiers killed while wearing the German uniform. Finally, since the armies’ losses were themselves calculated approximately, applying percentages of specific populations to them would only result in even more unreliable estimates. Better to avoid this and calculate losses not per nation but per army.

Second: War loss statistics were highly sensitive data. During the war, figures indicating the numbers of soldiers killed or wounded in action were arguments in political and military debates. High numbers of useless losses were invoked against commanders in chief, for example against Robert Nivelle (1856-1824) and Sir Douglas Haig (1861-1928) in 1917 such bloodletting was a major reason behind calls for their removal. Public opinion was shocked by the thousands dead on the first days of the Somme, the Chemin des Dames or Passchendaele, and the home population’s morale was at stake. Hence the armies were eager to conceal too high of losses in order to safeguard themselves from controversy. For this reason, it is likely that the main source of information was biased by commanders’ and their staffs’ temptation to minimise war losses.

Third: Regardless of this bias, armies were more interested in evaluating the number of living than dead soldiers. Commanders asked how many soldiers they could use in battle, how many were unavailable it did not matter whether the unavailable ones were dead or “only” wounded. For instance, the German Sanitätsbericht counted wounded soldiers coming back and those who did not return to the field army, but it did not distinguish in the latter group between those who died from their wounds and those who recovered but were sent home or discharged.

More generally, military sources used a category easy to understand, in order to find a place in the statistics for soldiers about whom nothing was known: the “missing”. Some missing were dead, others were prisoners of war (POWs), others were far from the trenches in rear hospitals, sometimes in foreign countries. Evaluations of war losses often included the missing. For the military, wherever they were, they were not on the battlefield. However, many of the missing were alive. French statistics provide monthly tables of war losses from November 1918 to July 1919 and surprisingly show a growing number of dead soldiers from month to month. A small reason for this growing death toll was that some soldiers died in hospitals after the armistice. But the main reason was the redistribution of those originally listed as missing into other categories: the dead, the wounded still in the army, the discharged. As the numbers were updated each month, new names slipped from the “missing” category to the category of those killed, wounded or discharged, each of which increased regularly. There were not new victims of the war, but rather artefacts of a better evaluation of war losses.

Fourth: Military statistics only registered officers and soldiers, not civilians. This makes such figures useless in counting not only the losses of civilian populations but also a small part of military losses after discharge. Some soldiers died from their wounds or illness after leaving the army. It would be fair to count them among war losses. Undoubtedly, for instance, gas victims are casualties of war, even when they were dressed in civilian clothes. However, it is impossible to include them in the calculation of war losses. Some of them died a few months after the armistice. Others had the chance to recover, to live many more years, dying perhaps from cancer or an accident, not from a gas-related illness. How should one separate these categories of cause of death? The only certainty is that evaluations of war losses are somewhat underestimated due to this difficulty.


According to the last update in 2008 from the National Archives, there were 58,220 U.S. military fatal casualties during the Vietnam War. All their names were honored on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall in Washington D.C.

Death by Casualties Type

Among 58,220 U.S. fatal casualties, there were 47,434 hostile deaths and 10,786 non-hostiles.

Casualty Type Number of Records
Killed (Hostile) 38,505
Died Of Wounds (Hostile) 5,242
Died While Missing (Hostile) 3,523
Died While Captured (Hostile) 116
Died Of Other Causes (Non-Hostile) 7,455
Died Of Illness (Non-Hostile) 1,990
Died While Missing (Non-Hostile) 1,353
Total 58,178 (1)

Death by Years

Year of Death Number of Records
1956-1962 78
1963 122
1964 216
1965 1,928
1966 6,350
1967 11,363
1968 16,899
1969 11,780
1970 6,173
1971 2,414
1972 759
1973 69
1974 1
1975 62
After 1975 7
Total 58,220

The first American soldier died in the Vietnam War was Richard B. Fitzgibbon, Jr., a U.S. Air Force Technical Sergeant. He was not killed in action but murdered by another U.S. airman and later died of his wounds on 8 June, 1956. On October 22, 1957, the U.S. forces suffered their first hostile casualties. Thirteen Americans were wounded in three terrorist bombings. Since then, number of terrorist incidents rose quickly. In the last quarter of 1957, 75 local officers were assassinated and kidnapped.

The U.S. casualties increased proportional to its growing military intervention in Vietnam. 1968 was the year when American troop strength in Vietnam peaked at around 540,000, which also happened to be the deadliest year with 16,899 deaths. The high casualty in 1968 also was caused by the first massive offensive from North Vietnam, widely known as Tet Offensive. In later years of the conflict, after President Nixon began to implement the Vietnamization policy, the number of soldiers decreased gradually and so did the number of deaths.

Charles McMahon and Darwin Lee Judge were the last American soldiers died during the war. The two men, both U.S. Marines, were killed on a rocket attack on April 29, 1975 – one day before the Fall of Saigon and South Vietnam. After the Vietnam War, seven more soldiers died by the wounds they had suffered in Vietnam.

Death by Rank

There were 7,878 (1) American officers died in Vietnam War, including 1,278 Warrant Officers, 2,981 Lieutenant, 2,045 Captain, 898 Major/Lt Commander, 426 Lt Colonel/Commander, 238 Colonel, and 12 who had reached the rank of general. Major general/Rear Admiral was the highest ranking personnel died in Vietnam. Among five major general’s deaths, there were two served in the United States Army, two in the United States Air Force, and the other one in the United States Marine Corps.

Death by Race

By race, the ratio of men who died was nearly proportional with the ratio of men who served.

RACE RATIO OF MEN WHO SEVERED (%) RATIO OF MEN WHO DIED (%) DEATHS
Branco 88.4 85.6 49,830
Preto 10.6 12.4 7,243
De outros 1.0 2.0 1,147

Other Facts:

Dan Bullock is believed as the youngest Vietnam KIA at 15 years old.
Dwaine McGriff, the oldest person was honored on the Wall, died at 63 years old.
At least 25,000 soldiers who died in Vietnam War were 20 years old or younger.
There were eight women who died in Vietnam, seven of them served in the United States Army and one in the United States Air Force. The oldest woman died was Lt. Colonel Annie Ruth Graham, when she was 52. Annie was also the highest ranking woman died in Vietnam.


Assista o vídeo: 10 Países Mais Seguros em uma 3 Guerra Mundial


Comentários:

  1. Tujind

    This conditionality, no more, no less

  2. Abeodan

    Eu acredito que você estava errado. Tenho certeza. Vamos tentar discutir isso.

  3. Akinolar

    Tópico bastante útil

  4. Narg

    Seu site não está aparecendo muito bem na ópera, mas está tudo bem! Obrigado por seus pensamentos inteligentes!



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