487º Grupo de Bombardeio

487º Grupo de Bombardeio


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487º Grupo de Bombardeio

História - Livros - Aeronave - Linha do tempo - Comandantes - Bases principais - Unidades de componentes - Atribuído a

História

O 487º Grupo de Bombardeio foi uma unidade de bombardeiro pesado da Oitava Força Aérea, com base em Lavenham, Suffolk, de agosto de 1944 até o fim da guerra na Europa.

O grupo entrou em combate em maio de 1944, operando o B-24 Liberator contra alvos no norte da França. Antes do desembarque do Dia D, ele atacou campos de aviação alemães, enquanto durante a própria invasão atacou as defesas costeiras alemãs e as ligações de transporte. Durante o mês de julho, o grupo atacou as posições alemãs em torno de Caen, durante os ataques britânicos à cidade, enquanto em agosto realizou missões de apoio ao ataque a Brest.

Em agosto o grupo se converteu em Fortaleza Voadora B-17, e passou a participar da campanha de bombardeio estratégico, atacando alvos na Alemanha até março de 1945. Também participou de uma série de operações táticas, atacando posições de armas alemãs durante Operação Market Garden, apoiando as tropas do grupo durante a Batalha de Bulge e novamente durante a travessia do Reno em março de 1945. O grupo retornou aos Estados Unidos em agosto-setembro de 1945.

Livros

Aeronave

Setembro de 1943 a agosto de 1944: Consolidated B-24 Liberator
Agosto de 1944 a abril de 1945: Fortaleza Voadora Boeing B-17

Linha do tempo

14 de setembro de 1943Constituído como 487º Grupo de Bombardeio (Pesado)
20 de setembro de 1943ativado
Março a abril de 1944Mudou-se para a Inglaterra para ingressar na Oitava Força Aérea
Maio-agosto de 1944Em combate com B-24 Liberator
Agosto de 1944 a abril de 1945Em combate com a Fortaleza Voadora B-17
Agosto-setembro de 1945Retornou aos Estados Unidos
7 de novembro de 1945Inativado

Comandantes (com data de nomeação)

Tenente Coronel Charles E. Lancaster: 4 de outubro de 1943
Tenente Coronel Beirne Lay Jr: 28 de fevereiro de 1944
Coronel Robert Taylor III: 12 de maio de 1944
Coronel William K Martin: 28 de dezembro de 1944
Tenente Coronel Howard C Todt: maio de 1945
Coronel Nicholas T. Perkins: 3 de junho de 1945

Bases Principais

Bruning Field, Nebraska: 20 de setembro de 1943
Campo de Alamorgordo, Novo México: 15 de dezembro de 1943-c.13 de março de 1944
Lavenham, Inglaterra: 5 de abril de 1944-c.26 de agosto de 1945
Drew Field, Flórida: 3 de setembro a 7 de novembro de 1945

Unidades de componente

836º Esquadrão de Bombardeio: 1943-1945
837º Esquadrão de Bombardeio: 1943-1945
838º Esquadrão de Bombardeio: 1943-1945
839º Esquadrão de Bombardeio: 1943-1945

Atribuído a

1944: 92º Grupo de Bombardeio; 3ª Divisão Aérea; VIII Comando de Bombardeiro; Oitava Força Aérea
Fevereiro de 1944-1945: 92º Grupo de Bombardeio; 3ª Divisão Aérea; Oitava Força Aérea; Forças Aéreas Estratégicas dos EUA na Europa
1945: 4ª Asa de Bombardeio; 3ª Divisão Aérea; Oitava Força Aérea; Forças Aéreas Estratégicas dos EUA na Europa
1945: 14ª Asa de Bombardeio; 2ª Divisão Aérea; Oitava Força Aérea; Forças Aéreas Estratégicas dos EUA na Europa


487º Grupo de Bombardeio - História

Designado para a 8ª AAF: abril de 1944.

Tenente Coronel Beirne Lay Jr: 28 de fevereiro de 1944 - 11 de maio de 1944 evadido pelo MlA.
Cel Robert Taylor III: 12 de maio de 1944 - 27 de dezembro de 1944.
Coronel William K. Martin: 28 de dezembro de 1944 - maio de 1945.
Coronel Nicholas T. Perkins: 3 de junho de 1945 - agosto de 1945.

Primeira missão: 7 de maio de 1944
Última missão: 21 de abril de 1945
Missões: 185
Total de surtidas: 6.021
Tonelagem total da bomba: 14.041 toneladas
Aeronave MIA: 48

Reivindicações de fama
Liderou a maior 8ª missão de guerra AF em 24 de dezembro de 1944.
Liderou 3AD em precisão de bombardeio de janeiro de 1945 até o fim da guerra, com ataques dentro de 1.000 pés MPI.

Reimplante nos Estados Unidos em julho de 1945. A aeronave partiu de Lavenham na primeira semana de julho de 1945. A unidade terrestre navegou no Queen Elizabeth em 25 de agosto de 1945 e chegou a Nova York em 1 de setembro de 1945. Grupo estabelecido em Drew Fd , Flórida, em 3 de setembro de 1945, e desativado em 7 de novembro de 1945.


Começou o combate em maio de 1944, bombardeando campos de aviação na França em preparação para a invasão da Normandia, em seguida, destruiu defesas costeiras, entroncamentos rodoviários, pontes e locomotivas durante a invasão. Tropas alemãs atacadas e posições de artilharia para ajudar as forças britânicas perto de Caen em julho acertaram posições de armas para apoiar o esforço aliado em Brest em agosto e para cobrir o ataque aerotransportado à Holanda em setembro de 1944. Realizou algumas missões contra indústrias, refinarias e comunicações alemãs durante o período de maio a agosto de 1944, mas operou quase exclusivamente contra alvos estratégicos de agosto de 1944, quando a conversão para B-17 foi concluída, até março de 1945. Ataques a refinarias de petróleo em Merseburg, Mannheim e fábricas de Dulmen em Nurnberg, Hannover e Berlim e jardas de triagem em Colônia, Munster, Hamm e Neumunster. Ajudou as forças terrestres durante a Batalha de Bulge, de dezembro de 1944 a janeiro de 1945, e voltou a apoiar e interditar as operações em março de 1945, quando os Aliados cruzaram o Reno e deram o golpe final na Alemanha. Retornado aos EUA, agosto-setembro de 1945. Inativado em 7 de novembro de 1945.

Patches, # 43-38893 - B-17 do 836º Esquadrão


Miss Bea Havin


487º Grupo de Bombardeio - História

Esta é uma lista de homens que serviram no 487º Grupo de Bombardeio (H). É organizado em grupos alfabéticos pela primeira letra do sobrenome e, em seguida, em ordem alfabética pelo sobrenome e nome dentro de cada grupo. Você só precisa clicar na letra do sobrenome que está procurando e depois percorrer a lista que verá.

Além disso, as aeronaves do grupo estão disponíveis em lista própria. As aeronaves estão ordenadas pelo nome da aeronave, se o avião tinha um nome conhecido e, se não, pelo número da cauda da aeronave.

Você pode ver, nas listas de tripulação e aeronave, nomes que parecem ser sublinhado. Estes são links para fotos daquele tripulante ou da aeronave. Clique nele para ver a foto e, em seguida, use o botão "voltar" do navegador para retornar à lista.

As informações, coletadas de muitas fontes, contêm os nomes de aproximadamente 5000 indivíduos e 300 aeronaves que serviu durante a vida do grupo. Embora haja muitos nomes aqui, outros podem estar faltando. As listas também estão faltando detalhes. Por exemplo, a patente, esquadrão, aeronave, etc. podem estar em branco. Na lista de aeronaves, pode haver um nome de aeronave, mas nenhum número de cauda.

Sua ajuda é necessária para "preencher os espaços em branco". Por favor, procure os nomes daqueles que você conhece. Se você encontrá-los e as informações estiverem incorretas ou ausentes, envie essas alterações por e-mail para mim. Se você não encontrar a (s) pessoa (s) que está procurando, envie um e-mail com as informações sobre essas pessoas. Além disso, se você tiver fotos que possa compartilhar de uma aeronave, tripulante ou outras fotos relacionadas ao 487º, envie-as para serem adicionadas ao site.

obrigado pela ajuda

Observação: Na coluna intitulada 'Equipe ou Foto do Grupo', se você vir uma pequena imagem naquele espaço, clique nela e veja uma foto da equipe do homem ou uma foto do grupo em que ele aparece.


Sociedade de História de Little Waldingfield

Esta apresentação de slides requer JavaScript.

A Sociedade de História teve a sorte de dar as boas-vindas a outro grupo de entusiastas da USAAF verdadeiramente comprometidos com a Sala Paroquial, liderada por John Cashmore e Dennis Duffy, que foram habilmente apoiados por John Broughton, Malcolm Osborn (que fez uma apresentação pictórica memorável do 486º ano passado), e Roger Lane (que exibiu sua arte fantástica para nossos membros em janeiro).

A apresentação cobriu todos os aspectos da transferência do 487º para Lavenham, incluindo a construção do campo de aviação, o voo dos aviões para a Inglaterra durante o tempo de guerra, a vida de base e, claro, a famosa missão 760 da véspera de Natal de 1944. Também tivemos uma exibição fantástica de uniformes da USAAF , que incluía botas, capacetes, bonés, luvas, equipamento de vôo, várias pequenas ferramentas e (nos garantiram) uma bomba fictícia de 500 libras, também aprendemos muitos fatos fascinantes durante a apresentação:

O aeródromo de Lavenham foi construído em 1943, com prédios técnicos e administrativos no lado sul do aeródromo, junto com a maioria dos prédios temporários dispersos que forneciam acomodação para 2.900 pessoas. Parece que o concreto para as três pistas e 3,5 milhas de pista perimetral totalizou cerca de 190.000 jardas cúbicas, enquanto as estradas e edifícios responderam por mais 52.000 jardas cúbicas - quantidades bastante surpreendentes. Cerca de 4.500.000 tijolos foram usados ​​na construção, com escavações totais no local totalizando 679.000 jardas cúbicas, no entanto, não foi declarado onde toda essa montanha de material foi despejada!

O 487º foi ativado pela Segunda Força Aérea dos EUA em 22 de setembro de 1943 em Bruning em Nebraska, movendo-se para Alamogordo Novo México em dezembro daquele ano. As unidades terrestres partiram em março de 1944 para Camp Kilmer, New Jersey e chegaram a Gourock em 3 de abril de 1944. A aeronave voou para o exterior em 23 de março de 1944, fazendo a (muito longa) rota de balsa do sul via Fortaleza Brasil para Dacar e depois para Valley Wales , Escócia, antes de voar para Lavenham no início de abril de 1944. O primeiro comandante da unidade foi o Tenente Coronel Beirne Lay Jr, um roteirista de Hollywood proeminente, até ser abatido em território inimigo em 11 de maio de 1944 em um dos grupos. As primeiras ações do 8217. Ele evitou ser capturado e voltou ao serviço após a guerra, ele escreveu o roteiro de Twelve O & # 8217Clock High, um famoso filme de 1949 sobre tripulações da Oito Força Aérea do Exército dos EUA.

O grupo voou com B-24 Liberators e depois B-17 Flying Fortresses para bombardear aeródromos na França antes da invasão da Normandia, parte da campanha de bombardeio estratégico da Oitava Força Aérea & # 8217s. Defesas costeiras, entroncamentos rodoviários, pontes e locomotivas também foram visados ​​em auxílio das forças terrestres da Normandia no Dia D 6 de junho de 1944. O 487º voou 185 missões de combate, a última sendo em 21 de abril de 1945. Também liderou a maior missão da Oitava Força Aérea da guerra em 24 de dezembro de 1944, quando cerca de 1.400 bombardeiros escoltados por 726 caças bombardearam onze aeródromos alemães a leste do Reno, com outros 634 bombardeiros pesados ​​atacando centros de comunicação a oeste do Reno. A missão era uma "esforço máximo" invadir o Brigadeiro General Frederick Castle na liderança “Pathfinder” aeronaves foram abatidas, assim como outras 55 aeronaves perdidas naquele dia. O general foi condecorado postumamente com a Medalha de Honra (do Congresso) por suas ações durante a missão que seu retrato hoje está pendurado no Lavenham Swan Hotel, um de seus redutos de guerra.

Surpreendentemente, mais de 90 minutos de apresentação absorvente passaram em um instante, com todos os presentes encantados do início ao fim. Somos muito gratos a John e Dennis por sua generosidade em dar livremente seu tempo, experiência, humor e paixão a um assunto de tão grande interesse para tantas pessoas, que foi visivelmente demonstrado pelo comparecimento recorde de 60 que chegou muito perto de ultrapassar nossa capacidade. Todos realmente se divertiram muito.


487º Grupo de Bombardeio - História

O conteúdo da História Fotográfica do 487º Grupo Bomba (H) está agora (abril de 2010) sendo finalizado. Se você ou sua família têm fotos que acredita que devam ser adicionadas a este livro, POR FAVOR, entre em contato com Lee ou Paul (informações de contato abaixo) imediatamente. Essas fotos são importantes para tornar este um documento histórico o mais completo possível. Precisamos ouvir de você agora. Obrigado!


Ivo de Jong, Paul Webber e Lee Hauenstein decidiram trabalhar juntos para compilar uma "História Fotográfica do 487º Grupo de Bombardeios".

Muitos de vocês já têm uma cópia de "A História do 487º Grupo de Bombardeios", de Ivo de Jong. Este é um relato detalhado da história do século 487, com ênfase nas missões de combate e perdas de tripulações. É ilustrado com mais de 500 fotos, mas devido a limitações de espaço, muitas fotos interessantes tiveram que ser deixadas de fora. Além disso, muitas fotos novas surgiram desde a publicação da História do Grupo em outubro de 2004.

Seria uma pena não publicar essas fotos. O objetivo deste projeto é publicar um livro, que valorize as fotografias. Para fazer isso, precisamos de sua ajuda! Estamos procurando SUAS fotos sobre TODOS os assuntos relacionados ao 487º Grupo de Bombardeiros e sua vida em Lavenham: Aeronave, arte do nariz, fotos da tripulação, equipes de solo, vida dentro e ao redor do quartel e fotos de outras subunidades no Aeródromo de Lavenham, como o Intendente e as Companhias de Artilharia, a Polícia Militar e os destacamentos da RAF. Qualquer foto tirada durante o treinamento em 1943-1944, em Lavenham em 1944-1945 ou durante uma das missões é de interesse e será avaliada para publicação.

Sabemos que ainda existem muitas fotos por aí, cuidadosamente guardadas em álbuns ou em envelopes amarelados. Esses são os tesouros que gostaríamos de ver. Os residentes americanos Paul e Lee são o ponto focal para a coleção das fotos. Eles irão copiar suas fotos com cuidado e devolvê-las imediatamente.

Muitos de vocês que compareceram à reunião em Kalamazoo em julho de 2008 trouxeram suas fotos, e Paul ou Lee as escanearam. Agradecemos sinceramente por isso e ainda estamos procurando por mais fotos. Planejamos fazer isso novamente na reunião do Phoenix em outubro de 2009.

Você também pode enviar suas fotos para Lee ou Paul por correio. Eles sabem como lidar adequadamente com esses tesouros e os devolverão a você após examiná-los. Você pode enviar suas fotos para:

Será uma excelente oportunidade para os tripulantes e familiares recolherem as suas memórias coletivas, expressas através de imagens fotográficas daquele momento extraordinário da sua história e da história do mundo. Essas fotos são tesouros que desaparecerão se não forem preservados. Sua ajuda é indispensável para preservar a história fotográfica do 487º Grupo de Bombardeios. Este será um excelente volume complementar para "A História do 487º Grupo de Bombardeios".


487º Grupo de Bombardeio - História

Quentin C. Kaiser - 489º. Esquadrão de Bombardeio


(B-25 está se formando sobre o Monte Vesúvio)

Contato em 20 de agosto de 1942. O 340º. Grupo de Bombardeio treinado com B-25 para tarefas no exterior. Eles chegaram ao teatro mediterrâneo em março de 1943. Atribuído primeiro para a Nona Força Aérea e depois (em agosto de 1943) para a Décima Segunda. Serviu em combate de abril de 1943 a abril de 1945. Engajou-se principalmente em missões de apoio e introdutórias, mas às vezes bombardeou objetivos estratégicos. Os alvos incluíam aeródromos, ferrovias, pontes, entroncamentos rodoviários, depósitos de suprimentos, posições de armas, concentrações de tropas, estaleiros de manobra e fábricas na Tunísia, Sicília, Itália, França, Áustria, Bulgária, Albânia, Iugoslávia e Grécia. Também lançou folhetos de propaganda atrás das linhas inimigas.

Participou da redução de Pantelleria e Lampedusa em junho de 1943, do bombardeio das praias da Evacuação Alemã perto de Messina em julho, do estabelecimento da cabeceira da praia de Salerno em setembro, da viagem para Roma durante janeiro- junho de 1944, a invasão do sul da França em agosto e os ataques ao Passo do Brenner e outras linhas de comunicação alemãs no norte da Itália de setembro de 1944 a abril de 1945. Recebeu um DUC para o período de abril a agosto de 1943 quando, embora prejudicado por condições de vida difíceis e clima desfavorável , o grupo apoiou o Oitavo Exército britânico na Tunísia e as forças aliadas na Sicília.
Recebeu um segundo DUC pela destruição de um cruzador no porto fortemente protegido de La Spezia em 23 de setembro de 1944, antes que o navio pudesse ser usado pelo inimigo para bloquear a entrada do porto. Retornado aos EUA, julho - agosto de 1945. Inativado em 19 de agosto de 1949.

Esquadrões
486: 1942-1945 1947-1949
487: 1942-1945 1947-1949
488: 1942-1945 1947-1949
489: 1942-1945 1947-1949

Estações
Columbia AAB, SC, 20 de agosto de 1942
Walterboro, SC, 30 de novembro de 1942 - 30 de janeiro de 1943
El Kabrit, Egito, março de 1943
Medenine, Tunísia, março de 1943
Sfax, Tunísia, abril de 1943
Hergla, Tunísia, 2 de junho de 1943
Comiso, Sicília, 2 de agosto de 1943
Catânia, Sicília, 27 de agosto de 1943
San Pancrazio, Itália, 15 de outubro de 1943
Foggia, Itália, 19 de novembro de 1943
Pompéia, Itália, 2 de janeiro de 1944
Paestum, Itália, 23 de março de 1944
Córsega, 14 de abril de 1944
Rimini, Itália, abril - 27 de julho de 1945
Seymour Johnson Field, NC, 9 de agosto de 1945
Columbia AAB, SC, 2 de outubro - 7 de novembro de 1945
Aeroporto de Tulsa Mun. Okla, 31 de outubro de 1947 - 19 de agosto de 1949

Comandantes
Tenente-coronel Adolph E. Tokaz, 3 de setembro de 1942
Coronel William C. Mills, 21 de setembro de 1942
Tenente-coronel Adolph E. Tokaz, 7 de maio de 1943
Coronel Charles D. Jones, 8 de janeiro de 1944
Coronel Willis F. Chapman, 16 de março de 1944 - 7 de novembro de 1945

Campanhas
Combate Aéreo, Teatro EAME: Tunísia Sicília Nápoles-Foggia Anzio Roma-Arno Sul da França Norte dos Apeninos Europa Central Vale do Pó.

Decorações
Citações de unidades distintas: Norte da África e Sicília, 17 de abril a agosto de 1943, Itália, 23 de setembro de 1944.

Insígnia
Escudo: Per fess nubuly, azure e argent, em chefe duas formações de nuvens próprias, uma emanando do destro e outra emanando do sinistro, na base três estrelas de cinco pontas, da primeira, duas e uma, todas superadas em fess , com uma espiga de trigo propriamente dita e um relâmpago, gules in saltire, uma orla em torno da zibelina do escudo.

Lema
EM QUALQUER LUGAR - A QUALQUER HORA (aprovado em 12 de setembro de 1955)


Conteúdo

Estabelecido como um esquadrão de bombardeiro médio B-25 Mitchell em meados de 1942, treinado pela Terceira Força Aérea no sudeste dos Estados Unidos. Desdobrado para o IX Comando de Bombardeiros no Egito inicialmente em março de 1943 via Comando de Transporte Aéreo da Rota do Atlântico Sul pelo Caribe, Brasil, Libéria, África Central e Sudão, depois realocado para o Teatro de Operações do Mediterrâneo (MTO) e para o XII Comando de Bombardeiros na Tunísia. As forças terrestres aliadas apoiadas na campanha da Tunísia participaram das invasões da Sicília e da Itália durante 1943, apoiando as forças terrestres aliadas com bombardeio tático de alvos inimigos. Participou da libertação da Córsega durante a primavera de 1944, depois retornou à Itália se engajando em ataques a forças terrestres inimigas e alvos no Vale do Pó durante a primavera de 1945.

Pessoal desmobilizado na Itália durante o verão de 1945, o esquadrão voltou aos Estados Unidos, sendo preparado para desdobramento no Pacific Theatre para uso como um esquadrão de bombas táticas na invasão programada do Japão. A capitulação japonesa levou à inativação do esquadrão em novembro de 1945.

Ativado como um esquadrão invasor A-26 nas reservas da Força Aérea do pós-guerra em 1947, desativado em 1949 devido a reduções orçamentárias.

Reativado em outubro de 1952 como esquadrão Stratojet B-47 do Comando Aéreo Estratégico. Inicialmente equipado com protótipos do Boeing RB-47B Stratojet (YRB-47) para realizar o reconhecimento fotográfico de longo alcance com um vôo de bombardeiros B-29 Superfortress atribuídos. Em novembro de 1953 começou a receber produção de aeronaves de bombardeiro médio B-47E protótipo de aeronaves de reconhecimento já recebidas trocadas por versões de bombardeiro médio. Participou das implantações do SAC REFLEX na Europa e no Norte da África durante as décadas de 1950 e 1960.

Em 1963, com a eliminação do B-47, a aeronave foi enviada para armazenamento em Davis-Monthan e desativada.


Medalha de Honra, Brigadeiro General Frederick Walker Castle, Força Aérea, Exército dos Estados Unidos

Brigadeiro General Frederick Walker Castle, Forças Aéreas do Exército dos Estados Unidos. (Fotografado por volta de 1943, como tenente-coronel.) (Força Aérea dos EUA)

O Presidente dos Estados Unidos da América, em nome do Congresso, orgulha-se de entregar a Medalha de Honra (Póstuma) a

BRIGADIER GENERAL (AIR CORPS) FREDERICK WALKER CASTLE

FORÇAS AÉREAS DO EXÉRCITO DOS ESTADOS UNIDOS,

para serviço conforme estabelecido no seguinte

“Pela bravura e intrepidez conspícuas em ação acima e além do chamado do dever enquanto servia no 487º Grupo de Bombardeio (H), 4ª Ala de Bombardeio, Oitava Força Aérea.

O Brigadeiro General Castle foi comandante aéreo e líder de mais de 2.000 bombardeiros pesados ​​em um ataque contra aeródromos alemães em 24 de dezembro de 1944. A caminho do alvo, a falha de um motor o forçou a renunciar ao seu lugar à frente da formação. Para não colocar em perigo as tropas amigas no solo, ele se recusou a lançar suas bombas para ganhar velocidade de manobra. Sua aeronave atrasada e sem escolta tornou-se o alvo de vários caças inimigos que rasgaram a asa esquerda com projéteis de canhão, incendiaram o sistema de oxigênio e feriram dois membros da tripulação. Ataques repetidos iniciaram incêndios em dois motores, deixando a Fortaleza Voadora em perigo iminente de explodir. Percebendo a desesperança da situação, a ordem de resgate foi dada. Sem se preocupar com sua segurança pessoal, ele galantemente permaneceu sozinho nos controles para dar a todos os outros membros da tripulação a oportunidade de escapar. Ainda outro ataque explodiu tanques de gasolina na asa direita, e o bombardeiro mergulhou em direção ao solo, levando o General Castle para a morte. Sua intrepidez e sacrifício voluntário de sua vida para salvar membros da tripulação estavam de acordo com as mais altas tradições do serviço militar. & # 8221

Departamento de Guerra, Ordens Gerais nº 22 (28 de fevereiro de 1946)

Coronel Frederick Walker Castle, US Army Air Corps (centro) e Tenente Coronel Elliot Vandevanter Jr. (esquerda), falando com o Brigadeiro General Curtiss E. LeMay, 10 de novembro de 1943. (IWM, Coleção Roger Freeman)

O Brigadeiro General Frederick Walker Castle, comandante da 4ª Asa de Bombardeio de Combate Pesado, pilotava o bombardeiro líder do 487º Grupo de Bombardeio, na Missão da Força Aérea nº 760, que era um ataque contra campos aéreos alemães. Este foi um & # 8220 esforço máximo & # 8221 envolvendo três divisões aéreas - um total de 2.046 bombardeiros B-17 e B-24, escoltados por 853 caças. O 487º liderava a 3ª Divisão Aérea. O alvo do Grupo & # 8217s, com um total de 96 bombardeiros, era o campo de aviação de Babenhausen, Alemanha.

Como comandante do Wing & # 8217s, o General Castle voou como co-piloto a bordo do navio líder, B-17G 44-8444 do 487º, com o 1º Tenente-piloto Robert W. Harriman e sua tripulação líder de 6 oficiais e 3 sargentos / artilheiros. Como o Pathfinder líder, Treble Four carregava três navegadores.

A tripulação de combate do & # 8220Treble Four. & # 8221 Primeira fila, da esquerda para a direita: Tenente Wilkinson, (não a bordo da Missão 760) S / SGT Lowell B. Hudson, Artilheiro de cintura T / SGT Quentin W. Jeffers, Engenheiro de Voo , Top Turret Gunner T / SGT Lawrence H. Swain, Operador de Rádio, Top Gunner Standing, da esquerda para a direita: 1º Ten. Robert W. Harriman, Piloto, Comandante de Aeronave 1º Tenente Claude L. Rowe, Co-Piloto (Tail Gunner, Observador de Formação para a Missão 760) 1º Ten. Bruno S. Procopio, Radar Navigator 1º Ten. Henry P. MacArty, Navegador de Pilotagem 1º Tenente Paul L. Biri, Bombardier. Não incluído, Capitão Edmund F. Auer, Navigator. O tenente Harriman, o tenente Rowe, T / SGT Swain, foram mortos em ação em 24 de dezembro de 1944. (487thbg.org)

O grupo começou a decolar da RAF Lavenham às 09h00 e montou a 7.000 pés (2.134 metros) no que foi descrito como & # 8220 clima perfeito. & # 8221 A caminho de seu alvo, os B-17s continuaram subindo até 22.000 pés (6.706 metros) ) e nivelado em 1223.

Bombardeiros pesados ​​da Fortaleza Voadora B-17 do 487º Grupo de Bombardeio, Pesados, por volta de 1944. (Museu Aéreo Americano na Grã-Bretanha, Coleção Roger Freeman FRE 6772)

Por volta dessa época, Treble FourO motor número quatro do 8216s, motor de popa na asa direita, começou a perder óleo e não conseguiu produzir sua potência normal. À medida que o bombardeiro diminuía a velocidade, ele saiu da formação, com o General Castle cedendo a liderança a um segundo Pathfinder B-17. O avião, agora sozinho, foi rapidamente atacado por Luftwaffe caças, colocando dois motores fora de operação e colocando o bombardeiro em chamas. Dois tripulantes ficaram feridos no primeiro ataque.

A Batalha de Bulge, um grande confronto terrestre, estava em andamento, e o bombardeiro Castle & # 8217s estava sobre as formações do 1º Exército Americano. O general não queria que caísse entre as linhas amigas com sua carga cheia de bombas.

O tenente Harriman e o general Castle continuaram a pilotar o avião avariado, pois a tripulação recebeu ordens de abandonar o navio. Seis homens pularam. Um homem foi metralhado em seu pára-quedas por um caça inimigo e foi morto. Outro perdeu seu pára-quedas e também morreu. Um terceiro morreu em um hospital devido aos ferimentos.

A cerca de 12.000 pés (3.658 metros), a asa direita do B-17 e # 8217s saiu e Treble Four entrou em uma rotação violenta. A fuselagem se dividiu em várias seções. A maior parte restante do avião, a fuselagem dianteira, incluindo o compartimento de bombas, asa esquerda e asa direita interna, caiu a aproximadamente 300 jardas (275 metros) de Chateaux d & # 8217Englebermont na Bélgica. Os destroços estavam pegando fogo e bombas explodiram.

O tenente Harriman e o general Castle, ainda na cabine, foram mortos.

Os destroços do General Castle & # 8217s Lockheed Vega-construído B-17G-65-VE Flying Fortress 44-8444, Treble Four. (Força aérea dos Estados Unidos)

Treble Four foi um B-17G-65-VE Flying Fortress, construído pela Vega Aircraft Corporation (uma subsidiária da Lockheed) em Burbank, Califórnia. Foi entregue em Dallas, Texas, em 14 de setembro de 1944. Depois de cruzar o continente, o novo bombardeiro partiu de Bangor, Maine, em 16 de outubro de 1944, e cruzou o Oceano Atlântico Norte para a Inglaterra. Em 20 de novembro, 44-8444 foi designado para o 836º Esquadrão de Bombardeio (Pesado), 487º Grupo de Bombardeio (Pesado), na Estação da Força Aérea 137 (RAF Lavenham), perto de Sudbury, Suffolk, Inglaterra.

O avião era um & # 8220Pathfinder & # 8221 equipado com radar de mapeamento de solo H2X, que permitia a um navegador de radar localizar um alvo através da cobertura de nuvens. A antena rotativa substituiu a torre de bola ventral do bombardeiro & # 8217s.

Os dois B-17s nesta fotografia, ambos Lockheed-Vega B-17G-20-VE Flying Fortresses, 42-97627 e 42-97555, estão equipados com radar de mapeamento terrestre H2X. (Força aérea dos Estados Unidos) O Coronel Frederick Walker Castle (quarto a partir da esquerda) se junta ao Major John J. McNaboe durante o interrogatório do 1º Ten James A. Verinis e sua tripulação de combate do 324º Esquadrão de Bombardeio (Pesado). Verinis já havia atuado como co-piloto do B-17F Memphis Belle. (Força aérea dos Estados Unidos)

Frederick Walker Castle nasceu em Fort William McKinley, Manila, Luzon, Ilhas Filipinas, em 14 de outubro de 1908. Ele foi o primeiro de três filhos do 2º Tenente Benjamin Frederick Castle, Exército dos Estados Unidos, e Winifred Alice Walker Castle.

Castle frequentou a Boonton High School, em Boonton, New Jersey, e a Storm King School, em Cornwall-on-Hudson, Nova York.

Castle alistou-se na Guarda Nacional de Nova Jersey em 1924. Ele ingressou na Academia Militar dos Estados Unidos em West Point, Nova York, como cadete em 1926. Após se formar, em 12 de junho de 1930, ele foi nomeado 2º Tenente do Corpo de Engenheiros, Exército dos Estados Unidos.

Transferido para o Air Corps em 1931, treinou como piloto no March Field, perto de Riverside, Califórnia.

12 de setembro de 1936, 1º Tenente, Air Corps, 27ª Divisão de Aviação

Retornado ao serviço ativo na patente de capitão em janeiro de 1942. Foi designado para o estado-maior do major-general Ira Eaker, empenhado na formação da Oitava Força Aérea na Inglaterra. Ele foi promovido a coronel em janeiro de 1943. Ele serviu como chefe de gabinete de suprimentos.

A partir de 19 de junho de 1943, o Coronel Castle comandou o 94º Grupo de Bombardeio Pesado na RAF Bury St. Edmunds (Estação 468 da USAAF) e, em abril de 1944, assumiu o comando da 4ª Ala de Bomba de Combate Pesada. Castle foi promovido ao posto de general de brigada em 20 de novembro de 1944.

O Brigadeiro General Frederick W. Castle recebe sua insígnia de posto de sua equipe, 14 de dezembro de 1944. (IWM, Roger Freeman Collection)

Os restos mortais do General Castle & # 8217s foram enterrados no Cemitério Americano Henri Chapelle perto de Welkenraedt, Bélgica.

Além da Medalha de Honra, o Brigadeiro General Castle recebeu a Legião de Mérito, a Estrela de Prata, a Distinta Cruz Voadora com três cachos de folhas de carvalho (quatro prêmios) e a Medalha do Ar com quatro cachos de folhas de carvalho. A União das Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas concedeu-lhe o seu Орден Кутузова (Orden Kutuzova, a Ordem de Kutuzov) Bélgica, a Croix de Guerre avec palme A França o nomeou um Officier de la Légion d'honneur e premiado com seu Croix de Guerre avec palme.

O Aeródromo do Exército de Merced foi renomeado para Castle Field em 17 de janeiro de 1946, em homenagem ao General Castle.


487º Grupo de Bombardeio - História

Tenente Johnny Moyer e seu copiloto. Crédito: Dana Craig, Don Kaiser

Uma História do 340º Grupo de Bombardeio e

Esquadrões
486: 1942-1945 1947-1949
487º: 1942-1945 1947-1949
488: 1942-1945 1947-1949
489: 1942-1945 1947-1949 Estações
Columbia AAB, SC, 20 de agosto de 1942
Walterboro, SC, 30 de novembro de 1942 - 30 de janeiro de 1943
El Kabrit, Egito, março de 1943
Medenine, Tunísia, março de 1943
Sfax, Tunísia, abril de 1943
Hergla, Tunísia, 2 de junho de 1943
Comiso, Sicília, 2 de agosto de 1943
Catânia, Sicília, 27 de agosto de 1943
San Pancrazio, Itália, 15 de outubro de 1943
Foggia, Itália, 19 de novembro de 1943
Pompéia, Itália, 2 de janeiro de 1944
Guado ( Paestum) , Itália, 23 de março de 1944
Corsica , 14 de abril de 1944
Rimini, Itália, abril - 27 de julho de 1945
Seymour Johnson Field, NC, 9 de agosto de 1945
Columbia AAB, SC, 2 de outubro - 7 de novembro de 1945
Aeroporto de Tulsa Mun. Okla, 31 de outubro de 1947 - 19 de agosto de 1949

Contato em 20 de agosto de 1942. O 340º. Grupo de Bombardeio treinado com B-25 para tarefas no exterior. Eles chegaram ao teatro mediterrâneo em março de 1943. Atribuído primeiro para a Nona Força Aérea e depois (em agosto de 1943) para a Décima Segunda. Serviu em combate de abril de 1943 a abril de 1945. Envolvido principalmente em missões de apoio e introdutórias, mas às vezes bombardeou objetivos estratégicos. Os alvos incluíam aeródromos, ferrovias, pontes, entroncamentos rodoviários, depósitos de suprimentos, posições de armas, concentrações de tropas, estaleiros de manobra e fábricas na Tunísia, Sicília, Itália, França, Áustria, Bulgária, Albânia, Iugoslávia e Grécia. Também lançou folhetos de propaganda atrás das linhas inimigas.

Participou da redução de Pantelleria e Lampedusa em junho de 1943, do bombardeio das praias da Evacuação Alemã perto de Messina em julho, o estabelecimento da cabeceira da praia de Salerno em setembro, a viagem para Roma durante janeiro- junho de 1944, a invasão do sul da França em agosto e os ataques ao Passo do Brenner e outras linhas de comunicação alemãs no norte da Itália de setembro de 1944 a abril de 1945. Recebeu um DUC para o período de abril a agosto de 1943 quando, embora prejudicado por condições de vida difíceis e clima desfavorável , o grupo apoiou o Oitavo Exército britânico na Tunísia e as forças aliadas na Sicília.
Recebeu um segundo DUC pela destruição de um cruzador no porto fortemente protegido de La Spezia em 23 de setembro de 1944, antes que o navio pudesse ser usado pelo inimigo para bloquear a entrada do porto. Retornado aos EUA, julho - agosto de 1945. Inativado em 19 de agosto de 1949.

Comandantes
Tenente-coronel Adolph E. Tokaz, 3 de setembro de 1942
Coronel William C. Mills, 21 de setembro de 1942
Tenente-coronel Adolph E. Tokaz, 7 de maio de 1943
Coronel Charles D. Jones, 8 de janeiro de 1944
Coronel Willis F. Chapman, 16 de março de 1944 - 7 de novembro de 1945

Campanhas
Combate Aéreo, Teatro EAME: Tunísia Sicília Nápoles-Foggia Anzio Roma-Arno Sul da França Norte dos Apeninos Europa Central Vale do Pó.

Decorações
Citações de unidades distintas: Norte da África e Sicília, 17 de abril a agosto de 1943, Itália, 23 de setembro de 1944.


487º Grupo de Bombardeio - História

Criado em 02-02-2005

Título: Diário do Navegador: 487º Grupo de Bombardeio, B-17
Por: Norman K. Andrew - introdução por Bob Holliday
Encontro: 1999-07-27 4917
Flashback: Orig. Versão de várias páginas
Cópia impressa: Para impressão

Quando Adolph Hitler começou sua conquista da Europa em 1939, ele começou a transformar aquele continente no "Festung Europa". Fortaleza Europa. A única resistência contra o Terceiro Reich foi a nação-ilha da Grã-Bretanha.

No verão de 1940, a Força Aérea Real derrotou a Luftwaffe na "Batalha da Grã-Bretanha" e a Grã-Bretanha sobreviveu para se tornar o ponto de partida da guerra dos Aliados contra os nazistas. Até que forças suficientes pudessem ser reunidas para atacar as muralhas da Fortaleza da Europa, os Aliados partiram para a guerra nas asas, pois Hitler havia construído uma fortaleza sem teto.

No início de 1942, a 8ª Força Aérea americana começou a chegar à Inglaterra para ajudar os britânicos no bombardeio estratégico de manufatura, transporte e alvos militares nazistas. A RAF bombardeou à noite, o 8 de dia. Assim começou um dos maiores conflitos da história humana. a guerra aérea na Europa.

The Eighth Air Force faced a formidable opponent - the Luftwaffe, with outstanding equipment and training, and more importantly, they were battle-tested. By the end of the war, the air battles that involved thousands of bombers and fighters, claimed over 26,000 American lives. This accounted for 10% of all American deaths during the war. 18,000 airmen were wounded and over 28,000 were shot down and captured.

One of the many groups of the Eighth Air Force sent to England to participate in this enormous struggle was the 487th Bombardment Group (Heavy), The Gentlemen From Hell. This story is dedicated to the airmen and ground crews of that group, and to all who served. This article is reprinted from the web site of the 487th Bombardment Group.

I was copilot on a B-17 and, since Jack Stanley, our pilot, had more than average experience, we eventually found ourselves on a lead crew. We led squadrons, groups, wings, even the entire Third Division once. Naturally, my navigator, Norman K. Andrew, or Andy as we called him, had to have superlative skills, and he did. Andy was 28 I was only 22. He was from Houston, every bit a Texan, and loved to talk about his days in the oil drilling tool business. Fortunately, I was a good listener.

Andy is no longer with us but recently his daughter Kathy sent me his original diary in three closely-written volumes. Andy had a broader view of the air war over Europe than I did. While I flew, or watched instruments, Andy watched the landmarks, the flak sites, the enemy fighters, and what was happening to other groups.

I think his diary is extremely worthwhile as a detailed record of what went on up there. It demonstrates how difficult it was to coordinate a huge stream of bombers with their human and explosive loads through weather, enemy action, mechanical and electronic failures, and human errors, to the targets. Sometimes we had to turn back without bombing anything other times we bombed "targets of opportunity." One way or another we almost always dropped our bombs.

We were stationed at Lavenham, England, about 35 miles east of Cambridge. We belonged to the 837th Squadron, 487th Bomb Group, 4th Wing, 3rd Division of the Eighth Air Force. We arrived as replacements in July when the older crews were still talking about D-Day, and flew our first mission in August. Due to the weather there were sometimes weeks between missions. When we weren't training we found time to explore London, Cambridge, Bury St. Edmonds, and Lavenham. I have focussed on the actual missions here.

I was proud to have been part of this action and I am proud to present Andy's view of it all. He was an unforgettable person.

Bob Holliday
Santa Monica, Calif. , February 1996

NOTES ON ORGANIZATION

A squadron would mount a formation of 13 aircraft a group had 3 squadrons and would mount 39 aircraft a wing had 3 groups a division had a number of wings. The 1st and 3rd divisions were B-17s the 2nd division was B-24s. Squadrons flew in a vee formation with the left one higher and the right one lower than the lead squadron. It was important to fly a tight formation for maximum protection from fighters, but a frontal attack with 20mm guns could be deadly.

The normal B-17 crew was 11 men lead crews usually carried more than that, what with Air Leaders, special navigators, and special bombardiers. Only the lead and deputy lead aircraft carried Norden bombsights others toggled their bombs when they saw the lead ship drop its bombs. The 13th ship in a squadron was "tail-end Charlie," a vulnerable position.

Lead crews flew fewer total missions because they were the "aiming points" and were more frequently shot down by flak and fighters. Also, they flew more practice missions. We were in England for 9 months compared with an average of 4-5 months for wing crews.

Andy used many abbreviations and technical terms. I have tried to explain them below.

5/10ths, etc. - fraction of cloud coverage
AFCE - anybody know?
A.F - airfield
Buncher - a beacon of known location
Chaff - aluminum foil to fool radar
CQ - Charge of Quarters, enlisted man who wakes you from a sound sleep
Engine # - Sit in the pilot's seat and count engines from left to right.
Gee Box - Plot your position by homing on a network of beacons. Very accurate.
IP - Initial Point where you start your bomb run
Kts - Knots, nautical miles per hour
Micro-H - Electronic assistance on the bomb run, using beacon
MPI - main point of impact desired
NM - nautical miles
PFF - Pathfinder radar for bombing through overcast
Splasher - a beacon where you gather your squadrons and groups together
RP - rally point where you reassemble squadrons after the bomb run
T/O - take off
V-1 - German pilotless aircraft ("buzz bomb") powered by ramjet which dove on a signal from an onboard timer
V-2 - German ballistic rocket carrying a ton of explosives

NOTES FROM ANDY'S DIARY

Flew our 1st mission today, 34 to go. They woke us at 1:50 am. Briefing time 3:00 am. So we knew it was pretty sure to be a long one. Had pineapple juice, fresh egg, hotcakes, sausage, cold cereal, coffee.

Target Schmitt ball bearing works, Nurnberg. Took off 0715 - left England 0856. Over enemy coast 0921. Ran into overcast and cloudy weather. Turned back approx. 50 miles southeast of Aachen. Picked a target of opportunity - dropped on lead ship and leveled the town of St. Vith - in Belgium. Encountered flak at Liege - moderate. Landed 1220. Logged 5-1/4 hrs.

Woke us up at 5:45 am for mission #2. On the way to breakfast we piled out of the truck and saw a buzz bomb. It was really moving along - stringing out flames behind it. It sounded a bit louder then an outboard motor. What a gliding angle! It hit about a mile and a half from the field.

The briefing for the mission was the real Army stuff. Gave us series #3 charts and the "Gee" signals were series #2. Mission was three-ship element bombing behind the German lines - about 25 miles west of Paris 1 mile south of the Seine.

We went into France between Cherbourg and Bayeaux. We skirted the lines (on the Allied side). We were lead ship of our element - I was really careful that we stayed on course. Between St. Lo and Uire there was a 12-ship formation flying on our left about 8 miles. They plowed right over a flak battery at Falaise. I was looking right at them when one of the ships got a direct hit in the right wing. The wing broke off between #3 and #4. Wing fell in flames - the ship fell in flames, tight spin to the right. No parachutes observed.

Three minutes later another one took a direct hit. All I could see was shiny bits of aluminum - just a ball of fire. No one had a chance. The formation did not try evasive action. As near as I could spot the flak it was close to Falaise.

We turned on the I.P. and made a 15-minute bomb run. Hit a road - purpose of raid was to interrupt Jerry's supply lines. We dropped 36 100-lb general purpose bombs. About 20 miles SW of Rouen there were about 12 rocket bombs. They really leave a trail of smoke. Jack called out 4 planes down in flames before I saw what he meant. Van Nostrand called 5 parachutes - it was a high formation that the sun just hit at the right angle.

After the rally point I called Jack to tack onto a formation. As usual Jack said, "Hell, Andy, let's go home by ourselves - get there quicker." So we drug into England with a formation on our tail. I can still see that B-17 in a tight right spin. I knew they couldn't get out - it was spinning too tight. I'd rather get a direct hit.

Was awakened at 1:45 this morning by Dick Giles. They were on their way to briefing. I thought to myself, "Missed us this time." -- but, the CQ woke me at 2:00 am for 2:30 briefing. So--after a breakfast of canned grapefruit - 2 eggs over easy - bologna (ugh!) - and cereal - and fresh oranges and coffee.. I was well prepared for the shock of the rising curtain (on the mission route).

Holy Smokes! Whoever planned this one should have given it to the Russians - it was sure a lot closer to them. Anyway - take-off was 7:45 - departed Splasher #7 at 9:08, left England and headed for Heligoland at 9:32. Just before Heligoland Dick lost his oxygen and aborted so the deputy lead took over. Target was a synthetic oil plant at Dresden - secondary, an airplane assembly plant last resort an airfield.

It had rained off and on until take-off. The apron to my flak suit was wet (really frozen stiff at 25,000 ( 25 deg.C). Saw a hell of a lot of flak all along the route but the nearest to us (except at the target) was approx. 300 yds - they used rockets - not even close and saw one burst of red flak - the rest was black. Every town we went by was smoke screened - but Bremen was getting quite a pasting. They were putting flak all the way up to 30,000 but I observed no hits.


Ball Turret

We made a very fancy bomb run - evasive action for all but about 3 minutes - then the bomb bay doors would not open electrically. So Rector cranked them open.

Then - on bombs away only 1/2 the load dropped, 5 500-lb GPS so Chuck hit both the salvo and the toggle switches. That did it, but it threw the other 5 500-lb bombs about 3 sec over the target - approx. 1000 ft. Then Rector had to hand crank the doors shut while we were making just about a 180 and diving. There were 51 sure guns at the target.

The ride home was just a ride. Some flak but all of it wild. Back at the base when we landed we darn near ground-looped. The pin in the tail wheel sheared and we took off across the infield. To top it off it started raining like the devil and everybody got wet. There was one ship (B-17-G) that landed at Lavenham that made it all the way back from Dresden on 2 motors. They had thrown everything they could out, including the parachutes.

Logged 8-1/2 hours - 5:05 on oxygen and traveled 1204 nautical miles not counting evasive action. On that oxygen - I had to move to the Bomb-Copilot line so Jack would have enough to get home - landed with the red light on and 75 pounds on the gauge. So it ends - hope we didn't kill any women or children with those wild bombs.

Rudely awakened at 4:30 for 5:00 briefing. Looked like a short one - but - it was sure longer than yesterday's. Left Great Yarmouth at 9:32 and headed over the North Sea. Right through a stationary front. It really scattered the formation. We were reforming for 100 miles.

Came over Germany at the Denmark peninsula about 5 miles left of course. Everything was smooth - solid undercast - when, with no warning the Flensberg flak batteries opened up. They must have tracked us for 10 minutes because the first bursts were right off our left wing in the formation. The plane would jump up about six inches every time a burst would let go underneath and there were several. One of the ships got his, jettisoned his bombs and headed home. We got the hell out of there.

From Flensberg we cut across Kiel Bay to Nykobing on one of Denmark's islands. Angled across the Baltic Sea and hit Germany again near Stettine Haff. Two flak batteries took shots at us going by but we were just out of range. We flew west of Stettine where the flak forced us to fly 4 miles off course - that flak wasn't very well figured out.

Turned on a 6-minute bomb run and hit an experimental airfield (Recklin Field, the Wright Field of Germany) on the SE shores of the Muritz Sea. Had about 15 flak guns at the target and they were good. One of the boys went down in flames - the stories vary, from 3 to 9 chutes came out. It was the deputy lead - 6 officers and 5 enlisted men. We had 7i holes from flak.

Went north to Nykobing and home the same route as we flew out. Plane out for 4 days. Logged 9-3/4 hours but only 2-1/4 hours on oxygen. I'll dream of that bomb run - there were 3 bursts of 3 right across the nose. If that gunner had loaded just a little slower, he would have had us.

Well, four down and 31 to go. Wasn't quite as scared today as yesterday - but that's not saying much. Better get some sleep - we're alerted for tomorrow - if we do it'll be rough - day 3 in a row is rough.

Up at 4:00. Briefing, Plan "B" at 5:00. It sure looked good to look at the flak map and see Brest for the target. Not Brest itself, but a flak and coastal battery across the bay.

Nice trip - But - there isn't such a thing as a milk run. We went over the target at 20,400. There were clouds about 9/10 - but we had a beautiful hole and about a 1-1/2 minute bomb run. The Air Leader had jumped the gun and decided to go under the clouds so we didn't drop. Damn it! So we circled around and came in at 17,400. I could see a battery in Brest winking at us.

The ship jumped about a foot once - but the only flak observed was at 7 o'clock level and close in. Found out later they were shooting grey flak and it blended with the clouds. Anyway I wish they would do that more often - it has its psychological advantages. Dropped 38 100-lb GP's. I think we dumped them in the bay. However someone ahead of us has put a load on the target - I saw the smoke the first time over.

Logged 7 hours. The best part of it was only 3 hours on oxygen and only 45 minutes carrying that flak suit. My shoulders are really sore from the last 2 long trips. So ends Mission #5. Traveled about 680 NM not counting the 2nd run. Make it 700 NM.

Up at 2:30 am for 3:45 briefing. However I've had so much sleep the last 3 days that I hardly slept at all.

We are beginning to get some benefit from the occupation of France. We were scheduled to bomb Mainz, a supply depot. Going over we were behind the lines. However we ran into some pretty soupy weather. It went up to about 30,000. We circled around and over Paris trying to get through.

Our position was #3 on the lead element #1 and #2 were pathfinder ships. We milled around in the overcast for about 1-1/2 hours. Ships and formations were everywhere. At one time one formation went right across over us and one went under. Really gave us a scare. The mission was finally recalled. Two ships, not from our field, had a mid-air collision - coming around a cumulus build-up from different directions.

Some of our boys, on the way home, weren't quite on the ball and went over Le Havre. Got some flak but no damage. Logged 7 hours. Plus a few more gray hairs. Temperature went to -31C.

(Ed.note: During this break of almost a month we were designated a lead crew and took some appropriate training. We now had only 30 missions to fly instead of 35.)


487th Bombardment Group Colors

The mission today was a PFF - but we still flew. Number 2 in the high. Bombed the marshalling yards at Bielfeld - I think we dropped short. We had a pilotage bombardier getting his 25th mission in so he can go home. Pretty sharp boy. We had about 8/10 most of the way - 10/10ths the rest. We had no flak, no fighters.

Some of the wings coming in behind us went too close to Munster. Osnobruk tried a few bursts - about 1/2 mile off our right wing. One of our boys flipped over on his back and tore the wing off of his left wing man (this was #037, the ship we flew over from the states). Both went down - must have been prop wash. One ship in the group behind us blew up. What a day!

The sergeant woke me up at 2:15 for 3:00 am pre-briefing. For some reason they did not get me up for Target Study. Target: Primary - A/F north of Kassel. Secondary - PFF on the marshalling yards in Kassel. For some reason I had a feeling of confidence all the way through. Slept soundly for two hours last night. After getting out to the hardstand and pre-flighting my stuff I lay down in the crew chief's tent and slept for 15 minutes.

T/O 0645. We ran into some light inaccurate flak between Koblenz and Mainz as we crossed the Rhine. I was working like mad on my guns. Joe put the left hand gun on the right side and vice versa. I had to change the switches at 25,000 ft and -40C. Was sweating when I finished - too busy to even watch the flak. The formation was really lousy -- all over the sky. Supposed to come in on a mag. heading of 116 - came in on 176. Target about 8/10ths covered. Bombed from 27,400 ft.

On the turn from the target we were carried by an 80-knot wind over the flak area at Gorringen. Flak at target moderate - fairly accurate. Flak at G---- light, accurate. At the R.P. I was watching one B-17 that was circling below us and losing altitude. Obviously hit. The right wing came off at #4 and the plane caught fire and disintegrated in not over 10 seconds. One chute observed. Not from our Group. Time of mission 7:45 4:30 on oxygen. Maximum cold -44C. Easy trip home.

Target study 5:45 am. Target - Munster. It was what the uninitiated call a milk run - but I still sweat them all out to the target. We led the low squadron. The mission was strictly PFF - 10/10ths. Had one hole just east of the Zuider Zee.

Something new was tried today. Two ships carried nothing but 1600 lbs of chaff. They flew above the high squadron and at the I.P. they took off in a 200 fpm dive with an 8 P-51 escort. When we dropped the flak was bursting about 8000 ft under us. I had a #27 set Gee box and was able to pick up the "C" blip all the way. Load was 12 500-lb GPs. We put 6 on the target 3 a half second over and 3 one second over.

Up at 3:30 for 4:30 pre-briefing. Target: Merseberg, Germany, synthetic oil plant. Third highest priority target in Germany.

Everything was fine until we hit the target area. Instead of a bomb run of 95 magnetic we finally dropped on 194 mag. Toured the Leipzig flak area from north to south (the long way). Four planes in our immediate vicinity went down in flames. Quite a rat-race at the target - groups everywhere.

Dick Giles, McDougall, and Remaklus finished 30 today. Dick said that for the first time he was really scared and wanted to turn out. We were in flak for 12 minutes. It was classified as intense, accurate, barrage type. Evasive action was no good - it was everywhere and not just a few puffs. After landing the boys said Big B was a milk run compared to it. The Leipzig area has 450 guns and I think they had had a chance at us.

Load 10 500-lb GPs. My figures: 874 B-17s over target. 4,370,000 lbs of bombs. Our escort was 850 P-51s and P-38s. They tangled with the Luftwaffe at the I.P. at 12:30 - we were over the target. They hit the group behind us at the R.P at 1330. 19 E/A were shot down over the target - one P-51. We led the low squadron. What a day! Planes shot up - planes aborting - planes all over the deck coming home. Coming over the North Sea we saw a B-17 with no horizontal stabilizer. We had one small hole in our stabilizer.

Up at 2:00 for 3:00 pre-briefing. Target: a honey right behind the lines. Some forts holding up Gen. Patton. We were group deputy lead. For a while I thought we were going to lead.

The primary was visual - secondary PFF. We couldn't see the primary until we were right over it - so we hit the secondary, the marshalling yards at Saarbrucken, Germany.

We had flak in the high and low squadrons - one ship in the low caught on fire and blew up. Three chutes seen - 2 were on fire.

The CQ woke Bob and Chuck at 3:50 for target study. Then he woke Jack and me at 3:55 for 4:30 pre-briefing. Target: marshalling yard just south of Coblenz, Germany (Oberlaunstein).

We flew deputy group lead until just before the IP. We then took over the lead for a Micro H bomb run. I called Whittnell just before the IP to see if he had it. He said yes, then, as we turned we slid into the Trier flak area. No damage. I got a Gee fix from the Ruhr chain at Bombs Away. We were right on course and 3-1/2 miles from the target. Load 11 500-lb GPs.

Called at 4:30. T/O at 0840. Target: marshalling yard at Hamm, in Happy Valley. Had to do some fancy weaving to get in the bomber stream. They had 3 groups over Buncher #13 at the same time - stacked. We were leading the 487th. We had trouble all the way in over-running the group ahead.

On the bomb run one lonesome B-17 nearly cut us out. Whitt got Chuck started at 70 deg. when Jack took off 10 deg. to the left. By the time we got back on the run all the check points had gone by. Chuck dropped on the indices and I got a Rheims Chain "gee" fix. 2-12 NM short of target on course. Estimated that we missed the MPI but hit the yards.

Saw one plane down in flames at RP. The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Divisions used the same corridors coming out. Never saw so many planes in my life. The field socked in 15 minutes after we landed.

Was really surprised to be awakened at 4:45 am for 5:30 pre-briefing. It was a micro-H run on the marshalling yard at Bingen, Germany - on the Rhine. Looked like a milk run but there was quite a bit of battle damage from flak. Kramer was leading the group. They had their bombsight, electrical system, and oxygen shot out. Aborted at the target.

We led home, but only got credit for a squadron lead. I was sure glad to get the lead - we were really skirting three flak areas. We are due to lead the low tomorrow if it's PFF. Saw two V-2s taking off for London - they were still within 10 deg. of vertical when they passed out of sight at at least 55 to 60,000 ft. Traveling from 500 to 800 mph.

Rough! Target: Merseberg. We were flying deputy lead. Had a fighter escort of 26 groups. Estimates ranged from 850 to 1250 planes. We went in south of Coblenz and right through the Luftwaffe's back yard and out the front yard. Right over the IP (after they had over-shot) the lead told us to take over for the bomb run for a visual run. Then they held the lead for about 80 miles and we couldn't get in.

Then - this hot (?) pilotage navigator we had didn't have a map to help Chuck. I grabbed one and gave it to him and he was just in Chuck's way. Chuck had to set up the AFCE.

Also - the 100th Group were going in abreast of us about 1/2 mile right. The smoke screen was in full swing and the flak was everywhere. Chuck couldn't pick up the Leund refinery through it - so we bombed a refinery (?) vicinity of Zeist. After landing the Air Leader tried to say he called for a PFF run. What a mess! We lost Kursran - direct hit in #3 - flamer and blew up. The 100th Group lost 3 or 4.

Milk run - grade A all the way. Target: Marshalling yard at Giessen, Germany. We led the high. Had quite a time assembling - had to go higher to get out of the soup. On the bomb run we were briefed to go through the Coblenz and the Limburg flak.

So, of course, the bomber stream overshot the IP. Went right over Limburg. They shot at the group ahead but not us. After the target we played along the edge of the Frankfurt flak, no shots close. We were supposed to go over Paris at 10,000 ft on the way home - but weather didn't permit. Came over Belgium at 20,.000 to top the clouds. Peeled off over Splasher #u and came home. Visibility about 500 yds.

12.24.44 (Our narrow escape)

The boys had a mission today. We were scheduled to lead the low - but were taken off. The boys led the 8th Air Force today - Harriman led. Were hit by fighters over the lines - lost nine ships, including Reed, who took our place in low lead. Lost 3 lead ships, so we'll probably be up for tomorrow.

Woke up at 3:30 am - when the CQ came after Chuck and Bob. Laid there with a toothache until 4:30 when he came in for Jack and me.

Nice mission. Primary: a marshalling yard, visual. Secondary: Coblenz marshalling yard. From Brussels east there was a solid undercast topped at about 15,000. So we hit Coblenz, Germany. Tactical ground support. My Gee box picked up and controlled the Ruhr Chain - but wouldn't make sense. Guess Runstedt's counter offensive must be pretty close to Liege. Used the Rheims Chain from the IP on in.

Four burst of flak observed - way down and behind, probably shooting our chaff. I think we threw the bombs east of the river. Got a Gee fix at bombs away that fell in the SE part of Coblenz - so did Whit with an Hxx fix. The target was in NW part of town.

A very rough day! Hamburg-visual. The CQ woke me at 2:45 - I thought it was Politz for sure. Target: oil refinery Hamburg. Took off and assembled in the dark. We had to switch planes at the last minute - late take-off.

Went out over the North Sea. About 60 miles out I told Jack we were 8 miles right of course. 150 miles out I called the Air Leader - we were leading the low - and told him we were 20 miles right of course and about to run into the Frisian Islands. The lead claimed that he knew where we were - so - a few minutes later we had several flak bursts about 500 ft off the right wing. As we passed Heligoland the clouds cleared off and we could see Hamburg 60 miles away. Went down the bomb run drifting over 30 deg.

Chuck changed heading near the target so he would be able to kill the drift. He did - only 245 deg. We had a wind at 15 deg., 110 kts. Due to prop wash the fore and aft bubble was clear forward. We came the closest of our squadrons and we missed by 1500 yds. The flak was moderate to intense and accurate as hell. One of our ships had 60 holes in it. Tonight there are only 8 ships available for tomorrow. After the rally point 6 FW-190s hit the group right behind us. They got 3 B-17s. Two flamers and one spinner.

Our ground speed from Hamburg to the coast out was 74 knots. Boy! Did we sweat that out! The Cuxhauca corridor has been shut off - but we had no flak. This one ran Merseburg a close second.

What a long day! Up at 3:00 am. Target: Marshalling yard at Aschaffenburg, Germany, - PFF. Our new C.O. Colonel Martin rode with us. WE led the low. And finally, I really got some help from Lt. Wilkinson, pilotage navigator. It was solid 10/10ths all the way so he ran the Gee box. I plotted the fixes and had time to really navigate. I also gave Whit a workout on his Mickey set when we ran out of range of the Rheims Chain.

It was a long drawn-out mission - but an easy one. Entered France at Calais and skirted the Belgium-France border to the Rhine just north of Saarbourg. Turned north to the target just 23 miles SE of Frankfurt. The only flak we had was 4 bursts from Stuttgart and that was about a mile off our right wing. The lead didn't drop on the primary but hit the secondary - marshalling yards at Pforzheim, Germany. They almost ran us into the Heidelberg flak. I took the low way to the left and rejoined them after they bombed. Milk run - only eleven, maybe ten to go.

The Colonel told us it was nice navigating and the pilotage navigator (27 missions) told Jack that I was the best he had ever ridden with. Bashful, aren't I?

Another day closer to home. Up at 4:00 am. Target: Primary a railroad viaduct, visual. Secondary Paderborn marshalling yards, PFF. So - of course it was 10/10ths and we hit the secondary. Went right over Bliesfeld and no flak. Only flak we saw was a groups ahead who crowded the Dutch corridor on the southern side. A three-gun battery put up about 40-50 rounds. No hits. We led the group. Had to come all the way home at 20,000 because of clouds.

Up at 2:45 for pre-briefing. What a target! Magdeburg - on the route in we feinted at Berlin, cut back between Berlin and Brandenburg - over Magdeburg synthetic oil refinery - by Hanover, Dummer Lake, Zuider Zee, and out over the Hook of Holland. We were leading the low. Went over the North Sea route, in west of Neumunster, north of Hamburg, and aimed at Berlin.

About 50 miles past Hamburg I saw 4 P-51s drop their tanks and peel off. One strafed a railroad, couldn't see the other 3. About a minute after they went down the Luftwaffe jumped the 390th flying 2 minutes ahead of us. They got all nine of the low squadron in about a 3 minute fight.

Not 15 minutes after that scramble was over about 30 FW-190s queued up about a half mile off our right wing. Before they could start in the P-51s hit them. Just before we turned north of Brandenburg they hit the 590th high squadron. I could see the 20 mm shells bursting throughout the formation. Four B-17s went down. In the two attacks I saw about 12 fighters go down, couldn't tell whether they were 51s or 190s.

Our high lead lagged behind just before Brandenburg. He never came back - it is supposed that the fighters got him. When last seen he was behind us at about 18,000 ft. and in the target area. At the IP our lead bombardier lost himself and took off toward Leipzig instead of Magdeburg. I thought the Air Leader had decided to bomb the secondary - but, after making a 180 we lined out on about a nine mile bomb run. Our group bombardier, Al Fillipane - riding with us - took the course as okay and killed his rate on the terrain. Result - we dropped east of the Elbe River. The high hit part of the target. The smoke screen was heavy.

Meanwhile the high squadron, with the #3 man leading, hadn't caught up. So they avoided the flak and joined us at the RP. The flak was intense and accurate - hit our #2 engine, right outside my window. We also had 6 hits in the wings and tail. We had to feather #2 on the bomb run.

About 15 minutes after, #4 started running rough and smoking. Our Air Leader thought it was about to catch on fire. Jack opened the cowl flaps and cut it back. We held the lead - otherwise we never would have kept up. I kept a course to Brussels available in case we needed it. The high squadron dropped on the marshalling yard at Osmabruck. At the Dutch coast we headed for home and had to feather #4.

The CQ came in at 3:00 - but I was awake. Target: Dessau, Germany. What a Cook's Tour it was. In over Holland and the Zuider Zee - north of Hanover and Magdeburg. Target: East of Leipzig - Schweinfurt. Over the Rhine River at Strasbourg. At this point we had our only flak - it was one gun (?) at the front lines. The bomber stream was about 5 miles wide and he had so many targets he couldn't make up his mind. Finally hit a ship, wounded two men. Returned to base - but was diverted to a RAF field at Fenningway 120 miles north. We started running out of gas at Peterborough so we came down. Landed at Glatton.

Led the group today. Off the ground 9:05. Traveled over 1400 miles over 5 countries.

Was I surprised this morning! The CQ woke me at 2:45 for target study. I had him check his list 3 times to be sure he was right. Target: Kaiserslautern, Germany. There were 3 groups of us in the 4th wing going. They scrubbed the 1st, 2nd, and all of the 3rd divisions but us. At briefing they told us we would probably be diverted.

At the target we (the low) and the high dropped first run. It was supposed to be cat and mouse - but the cat beacon did not have the code sheet delay. We dropped PFF and I had a Gee fix just 2-1/2 miles short of the marshalling yards. The Air Leader with us wanted to circle the RP while the lead squadron made a second run. Bandits had been reported in the area and there was no flak at the target - so I said, Hell no - make a 2nd run with the high and lead. Then he told me the high had dropped so we went back over France and waited for them.

On the way back we were diverted to Laon Couvron Airfield, France. The soup was from 11,000 down to the ground. We made individual letdowns. What a nightmare! Couvron was full so we landed at Laon Ataise A/F. The ground pounders were betting even money that at least one B-17 would crash - but no one did.

Here we go again! Target: Primary, Micro-H on an armored vehicle works. Secondary, PFF on the marshalling yards - both in Mannheim, Germany. The 487th did not put up a group of our own. We led a squadron with Rattlesden (low).

Formed at 12,000 and the weather caught us. Couldn't climb fast enough to keep out of it. So we took off on our own to avoid any planes in the clouds. Six of our wing men went home when they became separated from us. We left England on our own and headed across France for Strassbourg. The contrails were dense, persistent - really hard to even see our own squadron.

Our Air Leader really got worried about us being by ourselves. Jack and I had to argue like the devil before he saw the light on the bomb run. He wanted to bomb in group formation with just anyone. We wanted to take our 7 plane squadron in by ourselves on account of Whitt is really an expert on PFF (couldn't bomb Micro-H - too far from the beacons). Then - on the bomb run the bombsight froze up, due to lack of precautions by our visiting bombardier, and Whitt dropped the bombs, aimed PFF at the center of Mannheim.

Temperature at 27,000 was -65F and my left boot went out. Stamped my foot for 5 hours to keep it warm.

I wonder if there is any weather in which they don't fly in the ETO? Up at 2:00 again this morning. Target: Hold your hat! The Bohlen Synthetic Oil Refinery. Right in the center of the Merseburg-Lutz-Kendorf-Ziest areas. But - visual only. Dresden, secondary and Chemnitz, last resort.

We led the high. Took off in the dark, as usual, at 0705. Supposed to assemble at 17,500. Clouds finally forced us down to 7,000. Went in over Holland. Toured over every flak area between here and the target. Bohlen was 10/10ths - Dresden had cover to about 30,000 - so we hit Chemnitz PFF - two divisions - 1st and 3rd. The 2nd hit Magdeburg.

After leaving the target we received word not to try to come home the northern way but to go south. About that time the lead's Mickey went out and our VHF was out. So the low took over and we went right over Schweinfurt (no flak).

After wandering around near Stuttgart we took off across the Rhine between Karlesruhe and Mannheim. Got some meager inaccurate front line flak. Let down all the way across Luxembourg, Belgium and France. Crossed the channel at 200 ft. The base had no ceiling and we sort of felt our way in. After landing we watched the boys come in. Like to scared us to death! Finally one went off the end of the runway. Three crews landed on the Continent and one crew bailed out by Beachy Head.

10-1/2 hours today. Flew over 7 countries - England, Holland, Germany, Czechoslavakia, France, Luxembourg, and Belgium.

Looks like they are trying to finish us up on the rough ones. Today's primary was Bohlen, visual only. That's what is saving us lately, that visual only. Secondary: Weimar, PFF or visual. So we bombed Weimar marshalling yard and small arms plant. We really plastered it! We went in the Coblenz-Frankfurt corridor. No flak - surprise!

Just north of Frankfurt six Me 262s jumped us but they didn't get a shot. One came across in front of us from 2 o'clock high to 8 o'clock low with a P-51 right on his tail. Rector had him in his sights but couldn't fire because of the P-51. That fellow was rugged - he circled around and tried again for a pass. Went right through the formation - but by then he had 5 P-51s after him and they weren't losing any ground either. I was too interested to be scared. At Hamburg and Magdeburg I was so scared I couldn't swallow - but today I was wishing to hell I had my guns back in or at least my camera.

We went on to the target. Feb. 6th we flew right over Weimar and didn't get any flak - it was 10/10ths. Today was about 5/10ths and they had a three gun battery. What sharpshooters! Went in at 26,000 feet and lost two ships. One went down at the target - lost a wing. The other one might have made France. Our pictures showed a perfect strike - one bomb went right in the building that was the MPI - and we were dropping RDK's too.

Really surprised this morning. We were not up to fly at 9:00 last night. But the CQ woke me at 5:30. He tried at 5:00 and I didn't wake up. 10:30 take off. Target: Hamm marshalling yard. We flew the low on Rougham. Bombing was supposed to be visual - cat and mouse - Micro-H. Flak was moderate and accurate. No. 3 ship in the lead blew up.

We were bombing in 6-ship sections. Went in PFF and Al dropped visual at the last minute. Really hit the target, too - a beautiful hit. Just before bombs away we were spread all over Germany and bandits were reported in the area. To top it off I hadn't seen a P-51 all the way in. The section behind us told us later that the flak was tracking us all the way in and out - bursting right behind us. One went off right over the nose. It was between us and the sun and really blacked the nose out for a while.

Came back to the field and couldn't see it until we were about 150 feet over the runway.

Up at 2:00 am. Target: Cheb, Czechoslovakia. Marshalling yards. Bombing to be from 12,000 feet. Led the Group. Assembled and flew about half way over Belgium at 6,000 feet. Crossed the Rhine south of Strasbourg. Good view of the Alps - about 40 miles away. Descended to 12,000 and hit clouds.

The bomber stream was all over southern Germany. We went to the IP. The primary and secondary were covered. So we wandered around Nurnberg. Jack wanted to bomb it from 16,000 but - we bombed the last resort from 19,000 - PFF. Crossed into France. As soon as I got Jack on course for Osrend I went back to the waist and went to sleep. I really had a headache.

Up at 1:30 am. Target: Sub pens at Bremen, Germany. Supposedly about as rough as Hamburg. We were leading the group with an Air Leader aboard. Take off was 6:00 - but was delayed 2 hours. I laid down on the cement floor at Engineering and really slept. Last night I "sweated" this one out - only slept about a half hour.

Instead of a wing assembly line - we all hit Buncher 23 and on to Southwold. I hit B.23 30 seconds early but there were two task forces ganged up and we could not find the "C" group that we were flying "D" on. So I hit Southwold 30 seconds early - still Eberhart was frantically calling with no results. On across the North Sea to the hook of Holland. I made it minute late.

Finally, over the Zuider Zee, the Air Leader called that he had picked up Charlie - so we swung in the bomber stream. It turned out that it wasn't even our wing - but Task Force #2. By the time I convinced the Air Leader - we had overshot the pre-IP about 5 miles. So we cut across to the IP and hit it on the head.

Made a PFF bomb run. Metro was 90 deg. off on their wind. Instead of 264 knots ground speed we went over Bremen at 190 kts at 26,000 ft. I only saw 2 bursts of flak just after bombs away. The flak was moderate to intense and accurate. It was bursting under and behind us. On the way home one ship from another group toggled on Quakenbruck. His 500-lb GPs fell short- only one hit the marshalling yards and his IBs lit in a field.

Major Eberhart complimented me twice. Once in front of the Colonel, and once at the critique, while I was reviewing the mission. I didn't say a word about his end of it.

Jack and Whitt finished up today so we buzzed the field shooting every kind of flare we had, except red-red. Darn near put one in the 72,000 gallon gasoline dump.

2/25/45 Mission #30 Graduation Day!!

Almost ashamed to finish up on this one. Except that our primary was visual only. Munich - PFF and the weather was briefed to be 6/10ths plus. Also we were given a diversion base in France.

What a trip! I rode the bomb aimer's seat. Clouds were 9/10th to Strasbourg. Then 3/10 to 5/10. Had some light accurate front line flak. Twelve o'clock, close in at Riegel. Had clouds over the bomb run - but I picked up the target about 15 miles out. Finally Rusty saw it. All 3 squadrons put their bombs right on the MPI. Results - good to excellent. The target was an underground oil depot on the south banks of the Danube - just west of Neuburg. On the way in we wandered off course and nipped Switzerland and Austria. I really had an easy day today.

Note on the last mission flown by the 487th bombardment group. For further information see 487th. Quote:

"From the last mission on 10-Apr-1945 noted above, I'd like to share an extraordinary photograph."

"On that mission with the bomb drop made, the group had turned back towards England. They were attacked by Luftwaffe aircraft, and specifically "Forever Amber" was attacked from 6 or 7 o'clock low by an ME-262. For those unfamiliar with that aircraft it was the worlds first operational jet, which could speed through a formation of the slower bombers with deadly results."

"The result of the attack was the fatal wounding of "Forever Amber". The tail gunner, Ed DeLachica was killed in this attack but the remainder of the crew bailed out. Another plane in the formation snapped this picture and a few others of the dying plane."

"My Dad discovered this and other photos while looking through declassified photos at the end of the war. Evidently base personnel were invited to look through the photos before they were scrapped. What a find!" Click HERE to see the photograph.

"Please consider joining the 487th Bomb Group Auxiliary. We're a group of people interested in the 487th. We try to get out 2 newsletters per year, in which a variety of information is shared by 487th crew, their families and friends. Stories are also shared on how the restoration of the tower at Lavenham is going. The family who owned and still owns the land on which the group was based is serious about keeping the memory of this era alive and with the help of several organizations is working to restore the tower, and turn it into a museum."

Send $10 for the annual dues to:

487 BG Auxiliary
Chick Kulp
698 Garfield Avenue
Lansdale, PA 19446-5625

For more military history related articles see our Military History Index. For more on the coming B17 simulation from Microprose/Wayward design see our Air Combat Previews Index.


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