Cerco de Almeida, 25 de julho a 27 de agosto de 1810

Cerco de Almeida, 25 de julho a 27 de agosto de 1810


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Cerco de Almeida, 25 de julho a 27 de agosto de 1810

O cerco de Almeida de 25 de julho a 27 de agosto de 1810 foi uma ação retardadora travada para retardar a invasão do Marechal Masséna a Portugal em 1810, mais famosa pela dramática explosão que encerrou o cerco.

Almeida foi a principal fortaleza portuguesa na rota de invasão do norte da Espanha, igualando a fortaleza espanhola de Ciudad Rodrigo. Em 1810, era uma fortaleza moderna bem projetada, quase perfeitamente circular e protegida por seis bastiões, uma vala seca e caixilhos à prova de bombas, estava armada com 100 canhões e guarnecida por 4.000 infantaria, 400 artilheiros e um esquadrão de cavalaria, todos sob o comando de William Cox, coronel do exército britânico e brigadeiro do português. Wellington se certificou de que o lugar estivesse bem abastecido com comida e munição. A esperança era que Almeida resistisse o suficiente para impedir que os franceses avançassem para Portugal durante o verão de 1810.

Apesar de seu final dramático, o cerco realmente satisfez essa expectativa. As últimas tropas aliadas em contacto com Almeida, a Divisão Ligeira de Craufurd, foram expulsas a 25 de julho (Combate do Côa) e o 6º Corpo de Ney deu início ao bloqueio de Almeida. O cerco propriamente dito demorou mais duas semanas, já que o pesado trem de cerco demorou algum tempo para viajar de Ciudad Rodrigo, e os trabalhos de cerco só começaram em 15 de agosto.

Na manhã de 26 de agosto, os franceses haviam completado onze baterias e, às seis da manhã, abriram fogo. A cidade logo estava em chamas e em três dos bastiões os artilheiros portugueses foram imobilizados, incapazes de responder ao fogo, mas as paredes ainda estavam intactas.

Naquela noite, um evento casual pôs fim a qualquer perspectiva realista de prolongar o cerco. O paiol de pólvora principal ficava no velho castelo de Almeida. Por volta das sete da noite, a porta principal do depósito foi aberta e um comboio de pólvora estava saindo para reabastecer os canhões nas paredes ao sul. De acordo com o único sobrevivente do desastre, um projétil francês pousou no pátio do castelo e acendeu um rastro de pólvora que saiu de um barril vazando de volta para o depósito. Um segundo barril, logo após a porta explodiu, e esta explosão acendeu o depósito de pólvora principal. A enorme explosão destruiu o castelo, a catedral e removeu os telhados de todas as casas da cidade, exceto cinco. Mais de 500 membros da guarnição foram mortos, entre eles metade dos artilheiros. Algumas das pedras voaram tão longe que mataram homens nas trincheiras francesas.

A defesa estava efetivamente encerrada. A única maneira de se locomover na cidade era pelas muralhas, pois o interior estava completamente bloqueado por ruínas. Apenas 39 barris de pólvora e algumas centenas de cartuchos que já haviam sido movidos para as paredes sobreviveram à explosão, apenas o suficiente para um dia de luta, mas nada mais.

Cox estava determinado a continuar lutando, pelo menos por tempo suficiente para dar a Wellington uma chance de resgatar a guarnição. Isso sempre seria uma esperança vã, pois Wellington nunca teve a intenção de atacar o exército de Masséna na fronteira portuguesa - o risco era simplesmente muito grande. Sem surpresa, a explosão desmoralizou totalmente a guarnição portuguesa da cidade, especialmente alguns dos oficiais. Embora Cox tenha tentado blefar os franceses, mantendo uma conferência com oficiais franceses em uma janela fechada para esconder os danos, alguns dos oficiais portugueses contaram aos franceses exatamente o que havia acontecido. Quando Cox enviou o Major Barreiros de Artilharia para negociar com os franceses, ele mudou de lado e disse a Masséna que não haveria mais resistência.

Tranquilizado por isso, Masséna recusou todos os pedidos de Cox para atrasos e, às sete da noite de 27 de agosto, renovou o bombardeio. Uma delegação de oficiais portugueses informou então a Cox que, se ele não se rendesse, eles abririam os portões. Cox não teve escolha a não ser capitular. Na manhã seguinte, os 4.000 sobreviventes da guarnição marcharam para fora da cidade. Sob os termos da rendição, Masséna concordou em permitir que a milícia voltasse para casa em liberdade condicional enquanto os regulares deviam ser levados de volta para a França como prisioneiros. Masséna quebrou esse acordo com uma velocidade impressionante e, em vez disso, tentou recrutar os prisioneiros portugueses para seu próprio exército.

A maioria dos sobreviventes regulares e 600 da milícia imediatamente alistou-se com os franceses, dando um verdadeiro susto a Wellington. Se não pudesse contar com os portugueses, todo o seu plano de campanha estava em perigo. Ele não precisava ter se preocupado. Nos dias seguintes, a maioria dos três batalhões, embora ele tivesse recrutado, Masséna fugiu, muitas vezes em grandes grupos, e voltou para as linhas aliadas. No início, Wellington estava preocupado com a contratação de oficiais que teoricamente haviam quebrado sua liberdade condicional, mas o governo português não tinha tais preocupações, e como Masséna havia quebrado sua palavra primeiro, as preocupações de Wellington duraram pouco.

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As muralhas de Almeida revivem o cerco napoleônico na Guerra Peninsular

Almeida (Portugal), 28 de agosto (EFE) .- Cerca de 400 reencenadores reuniram-se no domingo na cidade portuguesa de Almeida para recriar o cerco da vila fortificada pelas tropas napoleônicas em 1810.

O município histórico, situado no distrito da Guarda, na fronteira nordeste de Portugal com Espanha, foi sitiado há dois séculos pelo famoso Sard na sua tentativa de conquistar a Península Ibérica.

Napoleão enfrentou as potências aliadas da Espanha, Grã-Bretanha e Portugal _ sob o comando do Marechal de Campo Arthur Wellesley, 1º Duque de Wellington _, que se viam como o último obstáculo para o comandante francês em sua busca pela expansão territorial.

Almeida comemora agora o sangrento acontecimento encenando uma reconstituição histórica a cada mês de agosto, que atrai milhares de turistas e historiadores de toda a Europa.

No início da Guerra Peninsular, Napoleão colocou seu confiável Marechal do Império André Masséna no comando das tropas francesas. Masséna nunca experimentou a derrota e tinha o seu quartel-general no mosteiro espanhol de La Caridad em Ciudad Rodrigo, a 45 quilómetros (28 milhas) a leste de Almeida.

Ciudad Rodrigo foi sitiada pelos franceses por 25 dias antes de finalmente se render em 9 de julho de 1810, deixando os invasores livres para avançar em direção ao oeste.

A primeira grande batalha em solo português ocorreu em 24 de julho na Ponte del Rio Côa - uma ponte sobre Almeida - quando 20.000 soldados franceses comandados pelo marechal Michel Ney entraram em confronto com a coalizão anglo-portuguesa de 5.000 homens liderada pelo brigadeiro. Gen. Robert Craufurd.

As tropas de Napoleão, em número claramente superior aos aliados, obrigaram estes a recuar para as muralhas de Almeida. No entanto, o Combate do Côa teve um grande custo: os franceses sofreram pesadas baixas e perdas que vão de 300 a 530 mortos, feridos ou capturados.

O imperador francês, que via Almeida como a chave para Portugal, decidiu então sitiar a cidade estrategicamente localizada antes de iniciar um ataque total às muralhas fortemente fortificadas.

Reatores na Praça de Armas de Almeida conseguem transportar os curiosos até 26 de agosto de 1810, dia em que o exército de Masséna decidiu iniciar o assalto à vila murada.

Aquela noite fatídica _ há mais de duzentos anos _ terminou em tragédia, com dezenas de edifícios engolfados pelas chamas e o castelo-fortaleza da cidade, que se duplicou como arsenal de pólvora, explodindo numa grande explosão desencadeada pelo fogo inimigo.

Os milhares de mortos e de vidas humanas - militares e civis - perdidos foram agravados por incalculáveis ​​danos materiais, como a destruição da Sé de Almeida.

No dia 28 de agosto, após três dias de intensos combates, Almeida capitulou: os ingleses renderam-se e entregaram a fortaleza portuguesa a Napoleão.

No entanto, meio ano depois, as tropas aliadas de Wellington começaram a fazer incursões na fronteira luso-espanhola na tentativa de reconquistar enclaves cruciais como Almeida e Sabugal, levando Napoleão a perder vagarosamente posições na Península Ibérica.

Hoje em dia, os recriadores lembram aos visitantes que a fronteira entre Espanha e Portugal, estabelecida no Tratado de Alcañices, do século XIII, é uma das mais antigas do mundo.

As numerosas muralhas centenárias que se estendem ao longo da fronteira - coloquialmente conhecida como região de A Raia - fazem parte de um esforço coordenado de Almeida e de outras cidades portuguesas para incluir a área na lista de Património Mundial da UNESCO.

As reconstituições históricas do fim de semana foram complementadas por várias palestras proferidas por especialistas em história espanhola e portuguesa que destacaram o valor artístico e histórico de A Raia.


Sommaire

Almeida est une ville portugaise fortifiée à la frontière avec l’Espagne à une quarantaine de kilomètres de Ciudad Rodrigo. En 1810, elle compte 1 500 habitantes. Une partie de la ville se trouve derrière les murailles de la forteresse construite pendant les guerres de restauration. Construite sur le site d'un ancien château médiéval, la forteresse domine un terrain rocheux.

La forteresse d'Almeida est l'une des plus imposantes du Portugal. Elle est située sur une des plus hautes collines de la région. Censée protéger le pont qui traverse la Côa, la forteresse se situe en fait a 2 km, hors de vue de celui-ci. Au cours des siècles, Almeida a joué un rôle important dans la défense de la frontière [1].

Dans la lutte de Napoléon Bonaparte contre l'Angleterre et sa tentative d'isolement de l'île, le Portugal représente un obstacle, celui-ci restant fidèle à son ancien allié, et ce malgré les pressions exercées contre lui. Il nomme André Masséna, maréchal prestigieux, pour comandante la troisième tentative d'invasion du royaume. Cette invasion voit les 65.000 hommes de Masséna affronter les 50.000 hommes de l’armée de Wellington.

Située sur la route qui va de Salamanque à Lisbonne, la prémio d'Almeida par les troupes de Napoléon, après celle de Ciudad Rodrigo, doit assurer aux troupes françaises la communication avec leur base en Espanha. La Division Légère britannique de Robert Craufurd tente de retarder l'avancée française lors de la bataille de la Côa.

Ce n'est qu'alors que débute le siège d'Almeida, coloque forte sous le commandement du général anglais William Cox, par le VI e corpo d'armée du maréchal Michel Ney.

Les forces modificador anglo-portugaises

L'intérieur de la forteresse abrite les personnes ayant refusé d'abandonner la ville ainsi qu'une garnison de près de 4 700 hommes sous le commandement du général Cox, officier britânico au service de l'armée portugaise, assumant lesctions de commandant du 24 e régiment d'infanterie. O segundo comandante de la guarnição (Tenente-Rei) é o coronel Francisco Bernardo da Costa e Almeida. Les forces défensives sont les suivantes [1]:

  • 24 e régiment d'infanterie - 1 200 hommes
  • Régiment de miliciens d'Arganil - 1 000 hommes
  • Régiment de miliciens de Trancoso - 1 000 hommes
  • Régiment de miliciens de Guarda - 1 000 hommes
  • 3 baterias de 4 e régiment d'artillerie - 400 hommes
  • Escadron du 11 e régiment de cavalerie - 61 hommes.

La forteresse d'Almeida dispõe de 100 cânones, não calibre 40 de gros (18 livres e mais) [2].

Modificador Les forces françaises

Après le succès du siège de Ciudad Rodrigo e celui de la bataille de la Côa, l’armée française entame le siège d’Almeida de 25 de julho de 1810. Les Français font d'abord parvenir une lettre au gouverneur de la forteresse dans laquelle ils exigent la reddition de la place. Le général Cox recusar et exprime clairement sa volonté de résister le plus longtemps possible [4].

Almeida est en effet bien pourvue en vivres et en munitions. Wellington espère que la place résistera au moins jusqu'en septembre, début de l'époque des pluies qui rendent les routes habituellement impraticables. Cela augmentera les difficés des Français à marcher sur Lisbonne et à se ravitailler. En outre, le temps gagné doit permettre d'avancer la preparation des lignes de Torres Vedras. C'est pourquoi la défense d'Almeida a été si soigneusement préparée.

La quasi-totalité de la poudre et des munitions est entreposée dans une dépendance, à l'épreuve des bombes, de l'ancien château. À l'exception de quelques fosses et casiers humides situés dans l'un des bastions, il n'existe pas d'autre entrepôt de poudre [4]. Cela signifie que des barils de poudre devront être acheminés sans cesse entre la dépendance du château et les bastions occupés par l'artillerie.

Les généraux français choisissent le bastião de São Pedro (dans la partie sud-est de la place) qui semble offrir les meilleures conditions pour attaquer. Jusqu'au 15 août, ils espèrent voir arriver de Ciudad Rodrigo l'artillerie lourde, le matériel nécessaire aux travaux du génie ainsi que des munitions et de la poudre, sans quoi il leur est difficile de conquérir Almeida.

Une première tranchée est construite à près de 550 mètres du bastion de São Pedro. Des milliers de sacs parviennent de Salamanque pour être remplis de terre. Les tranchées doivent être formées en grande partie à l'aide de ce matériel, a zona étant de nature rocheuse et donc très difficile à creuser. Depuis la forteresse, les defenseurs cherchent à rendre difficiles à l'aide de l'artillerie les travaux préparatifs du siège. Le 24 août, les Français tentent bien de construire une seconde ligne parallèle, mais la puissance de feu de l'artillerie les en empêche [5]. Ce n'est que le 26 août qu'ils parviennent à terminer l'installation de l'artillerie (11 baterias para um total de mais de 50 bouches à feu) le long de la première ligne [2].

Près de 500 hommes (não 200 artilleurs) trouvent la mort dans cette explosão. Les dégâts matériels sont très importants. Lors de l'explosion, de grands blocs de pierre sont projetés jusque sur les tranchées françaises, blessant et tuant quelques soldats. Certos calibres armes de gros sont jetées hors de leur position. Une partie du bourg d'Almeida disparaît, tandis que le reste est très endommagé (seules 6 maisons ont conservé leur toit). Il reste 4 000 hommes pour la defesa de la place mais seulement 39 barils de poudre, une centaine de projectiles et près de 600 000 cartouches pour les mousquetons (150 tirs par homme). Seuls 200 artilleurs ont survécu à l'explosion. Les conditions sont manifestement insuffisantes pour tenir les Français loin des murailles, mais Cox décide de prolonger la résistance aussi longtemps que possible [7].

À 9 h de 27 août, un émissaire de Masséna se rend à la forteresse pour parlementer avec Cox et le convaincre de se rendre. Cox acceptte d'envoyer une délégation auprès du maréchal français, afin de connaître les conditions tornam possível une capitulation. Pendant ce temps, quelques officiers portugais faisant partie de l'état-major de Masséna - notamment le général marquis d'Alorna et le général Pamplona - s'approchent des murailles et parviennent à parler avec certos officiers et soldats. Ils leur conseillent de se rendre, prétendant that Wellington fera avec eux ce qu'il a fait à Ciudad Rodrigo (Wellington n'est pas venu au secours de la ville, carro filho armée étant numériquement inférieure à l'armée française, il n ' a pas voulu risquer une bataille en terrain ouvert). Le découragement qui s'est emparé de nombre d'entre eux après l'explosion des poudrières les amène à prêter l'oreille aux propos des officiers français.

Despeje o rencontrer Masséna, o major d'artillerie Fortunato José Barreiros e o capitaine Pedro de Melo sont designés. Os grandes Barreiros recusam de rentrer à Almeida. Il va même jusqu'à raconter aux Français les hardés vécues par la place. As condições que Cox representam para uma condição não aceita por Masséna et le 27 vers 19 h les bombardements reprennent.

Le second commandant de la place, Costa e Almeida, accompagné de quelques officiers portugais, annoncent au gouverneur Cox qu'ils considèrent toute résistance vaine et que, dans ces conditions, il faut réunir un conseil de guerre afin d'analyser la situação et étudier la nouvelle proposition à faire à Masséna. Cox n'a pas d'autre choix que de réunir ce conseil. Cette même nuit, entre le 27 et 28 août, une proposition de reddition est envoyée au commandant en chef de l'armée française [8]. Vers. 23 h la capitulation est annoncée [9].

Les termes de la reddition prévoient que les troupes régulières seront envoyées en França comme prisioneiros de guerre et que les militaires des trois régiments de miliciens seront autorisés to rentrer chez eux après s'être engagés à ne plus prendre part à cettere. La guarnição sai do lugar 28 au matin. L'accord de capitulation est aussitôt rompu. Masséna cobra o marquês d'Alorna e o général Pamplona de les convaincre d'entrer au service de la France. Aux officiers, il promet le même poste. Presque toute la troupe régulière et près de 600 miliciens acceptent. Alorna parvient à organizer une brigade de trois bataillons qui prend le nom de Seconde Légion Portugaise. Cependant, la grande majorité des hommes, officiers inclus, désertent dans les trois jours qui suivent, parfois par groupe de 200 a 300. «Alorna [10].

Pour Wellington, ces désertions sont un motif de préoccupation car le doute subsiste alors sur la fidélité de ces officiers et soldats. Ils seront néanmoins réintégrés à leur poste dans l'armée après une proclamation de la Régence. Quant aux officiers qui ont poussé Cox à la capitulation et au major Barreiros qui a déserté, leurs noms seront ajoutés à ceux ayant rejoint l'état-major de Masséna durant cette campagne, dans l'accusation présentée au tribunal militaire (Junta de Inconfidência) Tous seront jugés coupables de trahison et condamnés à mort le 22 décembre 1810. Seuls deux officiers sont capturés et exécutés: João de Mascarenhas, juiz de camp du marquês d'Alorna, ainsi que Costa e Almeida, segundo comandante d'Almeida [11].

Durant le siège, la guarnição perd près de 600 hommes, la plupart durant l'explosion des poudrières. Côté français, em compte 58 morts et 320 blessés, não certos atteints par des pierres durant l'explosion. Cette victoire ouvre la route de Lisbonne à Masséna. Avant un mois, il doit tout de même affronter l'armée de Wellington à la bataille de Buçaco.

La victoire d'Almeida est gravée sur le pilier Ouest-gauche de l'Arc de Triomphe de Paris en respectant l'avenue de la Grande-Armée.

À Almeida même, les ruines excavées du château se visitent ainsi que la tombe de l'officier anglais John Beresford tué lors du siège de Ciudad Rodrigo em 1812.


Conteúdo

Os assentamentos portugueses no norte foram convenientemente construídos no topo das colinas, fornecendo proteção às populações locais contra ataques. Durante a invasão / ocupação romana ibérica, muitas destas povoações foram convertidas em aldeias fortificadas, devido às suas posições estratégicas. Acredita-se que as primeiras estruturas defensivas tenham sido construídas por esses colonos, que trabalharam nos castros mais antigos em suas fortificações.

A ocupação romana do território foi seguida por ondas sucessivas de suevos e visigodos que reaproveitaram as estruturas. Os colonos muçulmanos, mais tarde conhecidos como mouros, ocuparam os assentamentos durante a Taifa de Badajoz. As terras de Almeida foram conquistadas a estes mouros em 1039, por Fernando I de Leão e Castela, mas permaneceram contenciosas entre 1156 e 1190, altura em que se alternaram entre as forças leonenses, mouras e portucalenses. [3] Em 1190, o território foi reconquistado aos mouros por Pio Guterres, denominado Almeidão, efetivamente acabando com o domínio mouro na região e inspirando o nome da vila. [3] A partir daqui as terras alternavam entre leonesas e portuguesas, e por volta de 1217 Almeida foi registado como uma aldeia leonesa, parte de um grupo de povoações que protegiam o vale do Côa. [3]

Edição Medieval

Em 1217, documentos mostram que o castelo em Almeida é um dos vários pontos fortes que guardam a fronteira entre Espanha e Portugal. A 8 de novembro de 1296, o Rei D. Dinis emitiu um foral (carta) a Almeida, mandando reconstruir um castelo e muralhas. Esta estrutura foi ampliada em 1369 por ordem de D. Ferdinand. [3]

Em 1372, Isabella, filha ilegítima de Fernando I, casou-se com Alfonso, conde de Gijón e Noroña, filho ilegítimo do rei Henrique II de Castela. [3] Este casamento foi uma das cláusulas do tratado de paz assinado entre Portugal e Castela em 1373, juntamente com o castelo e as terras de Almeida foi cedido a Castela por três anos. [3]

Em 1383, durante a Crise da Sucessão, o alcalde do castelo jurou fidelidade a D. Beatriz e alinhou-se com Castela, resultando na conquista de Almeida em 1386 pelo Rei D. João I, com a ajuda de nobres portugueses em Castela, garantindo os portugueses trono. [3] A vila passou a pertencer à Coroa de Portugal em 1407, com a troca de terras acertada entre D. João e o Alcalde. O Rei D. Afonso V doou Almeida a D. Pedro de Menezes. [3]

Durante o reinado de D. Manuel I foram encomendados o reforço e ampliação das muralhas e fortificações do castelo. As obras foram realizadas sob a orientação do arquitecto Mateus Fernandes e foram concluídas em 1508. Em carta de 9 de Setembro de 1508, D. Manuel deu instruções ao pedreiro Álvaro Pires para o exame das obras, à qual atribuiu o mestre de obras do Francsico de Anzinho , para realizar a tarefa por 1 $ 550. [3] A 27 de Outubro, D. Manuel ordenou o pagamento do pedreiro Martim Lourenço pela sua obra em Almeida, à “olha só a obra que o Francisco de Anzinho fez”. [3] O Castelo de Almeida foi incluído em um conjunto de manuscritos formados em um livro que continha desenhos de todos os 56 castelos localizados na fronteira entre Portugal e Espanha. O livro, denominado Livro das Fortalezas, tinha sido mandado compilar por D. Manuel I, tendo sido concluído entre 1509 e 1510. O autor foi Duarte D'Armas, [3] escudeiro da Casa Real e bacharel em Direito Canónico e Apostólico notário, que exerceu as funções de escrivão da Real Biblioteca e da Torre do Tombo. Ele visitou pessoalmente cada castelo e fortaleza com esse propósito. No livro encontram-se dois desenhos do castelo do Castelo de Almeida, um alçado a norte e um alçado a sul, tendo ambos os desenhos do castelo o estandarte pessoal de D. Manuel I, que em 1510 emitiu um novo foral.

Editar Guerras de Restauração

A partir de 1517, os edifícios da vila foram demolidos para o projeto de fortaleza. Além disso, um imposto de $ 100 foi cobrado de cada pessoa para o projeto, que incluía paredes e guarnição.

Mas, entre 1580 e 1640, as estruturas defensivas começaram a se deteriorar e cair em ruínas. [3] Após a restauração da Coroa de Portugal por João IV de Portugal, em 1 de dezembro de 1640, o monarca procurou consolidar e fortalecer seu trono, tomando decisões para fortalecer seu controle militar do território. Ele criou um Conselho de guerra para organizar a segurança do Reino junto com um Junta de Fronteiras. Esta Junta teve a responsabilidade de revisar e fortalecer as fortalezas existentes perto da fronteira. Um dos projectos da Junta era a construção de uma nova estrutura defensiva em Almeida.

A partir de 1640, foi instituído o primeiro Governador Militar da Beira, D. Álvaro de Abranches da Câmara, que mandou construir modernas fortificações, “com quatro ou cinco redutos, situando-se no seu interior uma Igreja e o Castelo”. [3] Projecto executado por João Saldanha e Sousa, encontrava-se em curso rudimentar em Janeiro de 1641. Esta primeira fortificação consistia em valas. [3] Em novembro, o Governador Provincial foi instalado em Almeida, que transformou a instalação em uma praça militar. [3]

Esta se tornou a fortaleza que hoje existe no local, circundando o antigo castelo medieval. Concluído em 1641, tinha a forma de estrela de 12 pontas. A responsabilidade pelo projeto foi do arquiteto David Álvares. [3] A fortaleza foi construída em estilo vaubanesco, com o qual se acredita que o engenheiro militar francês esteve pessoalmente envolvido durante o final de sua construção. [5]

Entre 1641 e 1643, o arquitecto Álvares foi superintendente no local, “administrando os representantes, pedreiros e mais operários e auxiliando pessoalmente nas obras das fortificações”. [3] [6] Como ele não recebeu um salário por seu trabalho, ele solicitou e recebeu uma isenção do dízimo. [3] Em 1642, Fernão Teles de Menezes decidiu construir uma vala em pedra e barro. O rei D. João IV mandou ao seu engenheiro régio, Carlos Lassart, desenhar e fazer o reconhecimento das fortificações nas regiões do Entre Douro, Minho e Beira. Fernão Teles Cotão tornou-se responsável pelo projeto entre 1642 e 1646. [3] Em 28 de fevereiro de 1643, um despacho régio ordenou a Carlos Lassart que, à medida que cada fortificação fosse sendo ampliada, deixasse um oficial orientado para a continuação do projeto. Por volta dessa época, o engenheiro francês Pierre Gilles de Saint Paul começou a servir a Coroa na província da Beira, possivelmente dirigindo alguns dos trabalhos em Almeida. [3] Em 1644, a fortaleza foi descrita como tendo uma cortina aberta de paredes. [3] Conforme João Salgado de Araújo, indicou que a execução das Real fortificações incluía uma imponente estrutura de sete redutos. [3]

A 25 de fevereiro de 1645, o Governador Militar da Beira era D. Fernando de Mascaranhas, Conde de Serém, que ordenou de imediato a redução da praça. Naquele ano, as forças espanholas tentaram atacar a cidade, sem sucesso. [3]

Em 1646, Pierre Girles foi substituído nas obras pelo tenente-general Rodrigo Soares Pantoja, e o governador da província ordenou imediatamente a redução das dimensões da praça. [3] Ainda assim, no ano seguinte, as obras da fortaleza foram ampliadas pelo sargento-mor Agostinho de Andrade Freire. Do mesmo modo, em 1657, D. Rodrigo de Castro, governador de Almeida, intensificou as obras de fortificação, ordenando grandes alterações ao seu perfil e organização. [3] Em algum momento durante o século 17, o castelo começou a ser usado para armazenar pólvora. Em 1661, segundo os escritos do Conde de Mesquitela, a praça ainda não estava totalmente rodeada, sendo acessível a partir da vila em vários pontos e não possuía fosso. [3]

Em 2 de julho de 1663, as forças espanholas atacaram o forte, mas foram repelidas, mas havia temores constantes de invasão espanhola. [3] Em 11 de setembro de 1663 a Província da Beira foi dividida em duas regiões, devido à sua grande fronteira. [3] A região de Almeida ficou sob o domínio de Pedro Jacques e Magalhães, Mestre do Campo Geral da província, que se fixou na vila. [3] Para salvaguardar o seu novo posto, em 1665, as obras públicas da fortaleza foram adjudicadas aos empresários António Francisco Maio e Domingos Vaz Heredes, mas foram posteriormente (16679 cedidas a João Gonçalves e Manuel Fernandes, sem discórdia. [3] ] Em 13 de fevereiro de 1668, Portugal e Espanha assinaram um tratado de paz, encerrando temporariamente o conflito entre os dois vizinhos ibéricos.

A calmaria das hostilidades não dissuadiu as forças portuguesas que continuaram vigorosamente a trabalhar na fortaleza, começando pelas paredes laterais esquerdas junto à Porta de Santo António. [3] Em 1676, teve início a porta magistral de Santo António e espaço de transição para o revelim da Cruz. A Capela da Vera Cruz foi demolida em 1680, para o prolongamento dos muros das fortificações. [3] Enquanto isso, em 1695, houve uma explosão no castelo, causando a morte de 40 pessoas e um grande dano às residências e fortificações próximas. [3] Este dano causou uma mudança na configuração do castelo.

Entre 1702 e 1714, durante a Guerra da Sucessão Espanhola, Almeida passou a servir de guarnição de tropas e base de operações de forças na Beira. [3] Em maio de 1704, Portugal foi invadido pelas tropas espanholas. [3] O conflito entre os dois estados continuaria até fevereiro de 1715, quando um tratado de paz foi assinado. [3]

Em 1736, ocorre uma explosão no armazém do baluarte de São Pedro, ao mesmo tempo que se acrescenta o duplo revelim à fortaleza. Entre 1737 e 1738, as obras no local foram dirigidas pelo régio engenheiro Manuel de Azevedo Fortes, coadjuvado pelos engenheiros Pinto de Alpoim e Jacinto Lopes da Costa. [3] Manuel de Azevedo Fortes propôs a construção de: cavaleiro montado sobre o bastião de São João de Deus uma cozinha em frente ao "tenalham" do ravelin dos Amores em frente às paredes entre os bastiões de São Pedro e abóbadas de Santo António para defesa dos fossos, na frente de todas as muralhas, exceto na parte traseira e portões um paiol de pólvora ao lado do castelo dois quartéis à prova de bombas sob os baluartes de São Francisco e Santa Bárbara a divisão do revelim de Santo António em dois corpos separados por fosso e com portão a nascente e aberturas para posturas nos baluartes de São Pedro, São Francisco e muros entre os baluartes de São João de Deus e Santa Bárbara. [3] A maioria dos projetos propostos não foi executada, e apenas os portões de São Francisco e alguns revelins foram iniciados. Entre 1746 e 1747, terras foram desapropriadas para execução da fortaleza. [3] Em 1º de novembro de 1755, o famoso terremoto de Lisboa causou danos às paredes e destruição do quartel da infantaria. [3]

em março de 1762, a fortaleza já havia atingido em grande parte as dimensões e o perfil atuais, embora os revelins não estivessem concluídos, nem a esplanada e as ameias. [3] Nesta altura os trabalhos estiveram sob a direção de João Alexandre de Charmont, juntamente com os engenheiros João Victoire Aliron de Sabione, Luís de Alincourt, Vasco José Charpententier, Pedro Vicente Vidal e António Carlos Andreis. Foram iniciadas as obras da cozinha em frente ao desfiladeiro de Santa Bárbara efectuou-se a correcção dos parapeitos, devido à sua subdimensão, eliminando a estrada a circular a construção de caminhos laterais nas paredes entre os baluartes de São João de Deus e Santa Bárbara, e baluartes de São Pedro e Santo António substituição de pedra nas ameias e reconstrução parcial da cobertura. [3] Charmont deixou com o seu sucesso, António Carlos Andreis, uma longa lista de obras a executar. Alguns dos projetos solicitados foram considerados inconvenientes para os engenheiros militares e foram alterados. [3]

Guerra dos Sete Anos Editar

Como parte das circunstâncias da Guerra dos Sete Anos, em 18 de maio de 1762, Portugal declarou guerra à França e à Espanha. [3] By June, work on covering the casemates in the bastion of São João de Deus were progressing, although Francisco Maclean has suggested making them bomb-proof. [3] On 15 June, Spain declared war on Portugal and concentrated a large number of Spanish and French along the frontiers of Beira. [3] Meanwhile, work on the fortress continued, with the construction of platforms in wood and the opening of canon emplacements in the bastions. [3] The excessive number of canons emplacements executed put in cause the defenses' resistance, and many had to be closed. [3]

Then, the fortress was besieged by Spanish forces for nine days between 16 and the 25 August 1762. [7] Known later as the Siege of Almeida, Spanish forces under the command of Count of Aranda lead a major offensive to take control of Portugal. The northern pincer of this force crossed the border into Portugal from Galicia, while the southern arm crossed the frontier from Ciudad Rodrigo and was soon outside Almeida. On the 25 August, Portuguese forces capitulated to the Spanish and advanced west towards Porto. This advance towards Porto was stalled due to the influx of 8,000 British troops and the Battle of Valencia de Alcántara, events which interfered with Spanish resources and supply lines. The Almeida fortress was garrisoned by the Spanish and held, despite the set-backs. Almeida remained the only major fortress still held by Spain by the end of the war. On 3 November 1762, the peace treaty of Fontainebleau was signed, leading to the 10 February 1763 Treaty of Paris, ending the Seven Years' War. As part of the treaty, on 11 April 1763 Almeida was devolved to Portugal, when Field Marshall Francisco Maclean accepted Spanish surrender, in exchange for the return of Cuba and the Philippines to Spain, which had previously been in the hands of the British.

On 9 May 1764, the Count of Lippe reexamined the batteries, and Miguel Luís Jacob surveyed the state of the military square, along with their adjuncts, Francisco João Roscio and Francisco Gomes de Lima. [3] On 30 January 1766, Maclean obtained regal authorization to proceed with work at the site, that included latrines for soldiers. A "General Plan for Additional Necessary Works for the Defense of the City of Almeida" was elaborated by Colonel Almeida Jacques Funck. [3] Miguel Luís Jacob became director for the public works. While insisting that most of the work was necessary, little was executed. [3] But, on 1766, a gunpowder magazine was constructed at the bastion of São Pedro, substituting the one that existed on the embankment, along with a similar one at the ravelin of Santa Bárbara. In 1773, the Field Marshall was substituted for Fernando da Costa Ataíde Theive. On 9 March 1770, "Extracto de apontamentos sobre o estado atual desta fortificação, dos Reparos e Obras novas de q. Necessita. " (Extract of notes on the actual state of these fortifications, its Artillery and new public works that are Needed. ) by engineer Anastácio António de Sousa Miranda, which proposed several projects until 1810. [3] The work would be under the direction of Matias José Dias Azedo, assisted by Joaquim Pedro Pinto de Sousa and José Feliciano de Gouveia. On 21 November 1796, they solicited the construction of a battery where the enemy had constructed a temporary installation. [3]

Peninsular Wars Edit

In 1800, First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte and his ally, the Spanish prime-minister Manuel de Godoy, sent an ultimatum to Portugal demanding that they should close their shipping to their old ally England (in the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373), and to enter into an alliance with France. [3] The Portuguese refused and on 28 February 1801, France declared war on Portugal, followed on 2 March by Spanish declarations to support its alliance with France: instituting the War of the Oranges. The defense of Beira was left to the Marquess of Alorna, and the fortress was under the command of Field Marshall Gustavo Adolfo Hércules de Chermont, who accelerated the execution of complimentary plan presented in 1795 and 1796, and expressed the urgency of erecting an embankment over the bastion of São João de Deus. [3] Spain invaded from the Alentejo and over the following months entered into a stalemate with Portuguese forces at Elvas, Campo Maior, Olivença and Juromenha. On 6 June 1801 Portugal entered into a formal peace treaty with Spain on the tenets of the Treaty of Badajoz, which was formalized with France on 29 September. But, after the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, Portugal restored relations with its old ally.

In December 1806, Napoleon decreed the Continental Blockade, imposing on Europe the forced closing of ports to English ships, which Portugal did not accept. Napoleon, therefore, ordered the invasion of Portugal. [3] On 20 November 1807, the first invasion, commanded by Jean-Andoche Junot, began, [8] resulting in the 13 January 1808 taking of the fortress, without resistance. The French left in August, and the Portuguese named Colonel Francisco Bernardo da Costa as the Governor of Almeida. [3]

Following Napoleon's brutal repression of the Spanish Dos de Mayo Uprising in Madrid, the Emperor triggered the Peninsular War by ordering a force of 4,000 troops with sixteen cannon across the border to occupy the fortress of Almeida, which despite the earlier French invasion of the country, was still in the hands of the Portuguese. From the fortress, Napoleon ordered that his general Junot [8] should closely observe the cities of Valladolid, Salamanca and Ciudad Rodrigo. On the 24 May 1808 [8] the first body of troops under the command of General Louis-Henri Loison [8] marched on to Almeida, arriving and occupying the fortress on 5 June. [8]

In February 1809, the second French invasion began under the command of Marshal Soult, but never reached Almeida. [3]

Then on 15 August 1810, André Masséna began the third intervention, bombarding the fortress, now under the command of British Brigadier General William Cox. [3] On 26 August, a shell made a chance hit on the medieval castle within the fortress, which was being used as the powder magazine. It ignited 4,000 prepared charges, which in turn ignited 68,000 kilograms (150,000 lb) of black powder and 1,000,000 musket cartridges. The ensuing explosion killed 600 defenders and wounded 300. The medieval castle was razed to the ground and sections of the defenses were damaged. Unable to reply to the French cannonade without gunpowder, Cox was forced to capitulate the following day with the survivors of the blast and 100 cannon. The French losses during the operation were 58 killed and 320 wounded. Masséna left the fortress in the hands of General Brenier. [3] On 7 April 1811, Wellington planned the retaking of Almeida. [3] On 7 May, Masséna ordered the destruction of the fortress, so that Anglo-Portuguese forces could not use it in the future. With that, on 10 May, as French abandoned the installation through the bastion of São João de Deus, they caused the destruction of the artillery within the fortress. [3] Almeida, therefore, was retaken by troops of the Alliance and held provisionally. On 7 June 1813, Colonel Pedro Folque worked on a project for the revitalizing the fortress. Within the year, the war with France was over. William Carr Beresford proposed to the Minister of War that the fortress should be dismantled and that the artillery should be removed. [3] On 3 March 1817, Beresford ordered that work on the fort should cease and that the fortification should be mined, which began in October, against the wishes of the Governor of Almeida. [3] In 1819, the Governor ordered the square be buried, and that the castle be transformed into a parkway or promenade. These changes made the fortress a campaign fort, providing monumental defensive functions, in times of crisis. [3]

Liberal Wars Edit

In 1828, the municipal authority sided with King D. Miguel, but the military garrison at fortress remains loyal to King D. Pedro. [3] By June, Miguelist/absolutist forces had the fortress encircled, leading to their surrender by 16 July. [3] Miguelist troops then remained at Almeida until 18 April 1834, when they were evacuated. On 22 April, a Quadruple Alliance was signed between Liberal forces of England, France, Spain and Portugal, that required their intervention in the defence of Liberal parliamentary institutions. [3] These events, ultimately, lead to the 26 May signing of the peace treaty at Evoramonte, forcing D. Miguel into exile, and beginning a period of free Liberal thinking in Portugal. Quickly, though, factionalism between Devourists, Chartists and Setembrists developed into a series of episodes that enriched internal politics, leading to internal strife and civil war. On 29 June 1847, the Convention of Gramido put an end to the civil war, not before the fortress was taken by revolutionary forces in 1844 interested in reinstating the 1822 Constitution. [3]

In 1853, Marshall Duke of Saldanha, commander of the Portuguese army, named a commission to examine the fortifications at Almeida and decide its military future. [3] The commission took another year to visit the square, which they saw as one of the strongest of the Kingdom, and suggestion it should be repaired. [3] Many of the required alterations and repairs were documented. [3] On 27 August 1887, the fortress of Almeida returns to its classification as a first-class fortification, and on 7 January 1888, a new military Governor is appointed. [3] This "golden era" would be short-lived: in September 1893, after public review, the fortress was partially destroyed, during the course of improving the accessibility and converting it from a defense fortification. In 1894 the majority of artillery pieces were removed, leading to the 28 June 1895 declassification of the square by the Comissão Superior de Guerra (Superior Commission for War). [3]

Edição do século 20

At the beginning of the 20th century, connections were made between the ravelin and magistral gate of Cruz. [3]

In October 1926, a cavalry contingent with its headquarters in Aveiro departed for Almeida. [3] The Ministry of War obliged the squadron to return to their barracks, on 26 January 1927, but they only departed on 19 February 1927. [3]

Starting in 1980, the fortress began to take on a socio-cultural and historical function, with the installation of multiple exhibitions and centres for investigation. [3] In that year, a military museum was inaugurated in the Gate of Cruz. A tourism post was inaugurated in the magistral gate in 1992. As well, the fortress was placed in charge of the Instituto Português do Património Arquitetónico (Portuguese Institute of Architectural Patrimony) by decree 106F/92 (Diário da República, Série 1A), in the same year, resulting in a permanent exhibition dedicated to the 23rd Infantry Regiment, along with activity space for scouts and multi-use halls in the guardhouse of the Santo António Gate was installed in 1996. [3] Ultimately, on 25 August 2002, the Centro de Estudos de Arquitectura Militar (Centre for Studies into Military Architecture) was implanted in the ravelin of Santo António. [3] On 20 December 2007, the property became the responsibility of the Direção Regional da Cultura do Centro (Centro Region Directorate for Culture), under auspices of the dispatch 1130/2007 (Diário da República, Série 2, 245). [3]

The castle is situated in an isolated urban context, implanted on the western limits 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from the Castela-Leão plateau, 763 metres (2,503 ft) over the valley of the River Côa. The modern fortification encompasses the older part of the village, covered in vegetation and only open along the military square, while the small bastion of Cruz is punctuated with trees. Alongside the Cruz gate, is the infantry barracks of Terreiro das Freiras and, immediately nearby, the Church and Hospital of the Misericórdia of Almeida. Near the bastion of São João de Deus is the Pousada de Nossa Senhora das Neves and on the embankment of the bastion, the old Trem de Artilharia or Picadeiro Real. On the extreme west of the village centre, at an elevated height, are the foundations of the castle, where a platform has been erected for tourists to view the site. Between the bastion of São João de Deus is a posterm or false gate, that accesses greenspace flanked by military square.

The fortress seen today is arranged on an irregular hexagonal plan and consists of six polygon, irregular and uneven sized bastions which are connected by curtain walls and forming a perimeter of 1.5 miles (2.4 km) and forms a 12 pointed star shaped fortress with six triangular shaped ravelins . [3] The fortress perimeter is completed with a moat and road with a covered terrace. The three ravelins on the north elevation are constructed on a flat masonry parapet wall topped with escarpment walls in stone. At each angled corner of the northern ravelins there is a cylindrical watchtower with a dome roofs. These ravelins are topped with ramped platforms for canons and launching mortars placements. The three ravelins on the southern elevation have flat masonry parapet walls which are crowned with ramparts of earthworks and like the northern ravelins are topped with ramped platforms for canons and launching mortars placements. These six bastions are called São Francisco, São João de Deus, Santa Bárbara, de Nossa Senhora das Brotas ou do Trem e Santo António e São Pedro. o São João de Deus ravelin has integrated large bunkers built into its interior.

Gateway Edit

To access the fortress the main gate is located at the south east curtain wall between Santo António e São Pedro e São Francisco and features a set of two long tunnel gateways separated by a bridge over the dry moat. the outer arched tunnel is called Porta da muralha the inside tunnel gateway is called Porta São Francisco. The facade of this gate features an arched entrance with double Doric columns either side. The columns are topped by a semi-circular shaped pediment. below the pediment and above the entrance there is a heraldic blazon or crest of arms.


Siege of Almeida, 25 July-27 August 1810 - History

Candice’s short story Desperate Measures is set in 1810.

All links are to Wikipedia entries.

A View of the Siege and Storming of Ciudad Rodrigo in Spain on Jany. 19, 1812 – contemporary print by an unknown artist. (click on image to see a larger version.)

Government, Politics, and War:

  • January 6: Treaty of Paris ends the war between France and Sweden.
  • March 4: The French Army, under the command of André Masséna, retreats from Portugal.
  • 20 de março: Venezuela achieves home rule: Vicente Emparán, Governor of the Captaincy General, is removed by the people of Caracas and a junta is installed.
  • abril: Rioting occurs in London after the imprisonment of Sir Francis Burdett, MP, who is charged with libel against Parliament after calling for reform of the House of Commons.
  • April 26: The Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo begins. The Spanish garrison is besieged by French forces.
  • May 18-25: In the May Revolution, Armed citizens of Buenos Aires expel the Viceroy from Spain, declare their independence, and establish a provincial government for Argentina.
  • July9: The Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo end in a French victory.
  • July 9: Napoleon annexes the Kingdom of Holland following the abdication and flight of his brother Louis Bonaparte, who has been king since 1806 but refused to join the emperor’s Continental System.
  • 20 de julho: Columbia declares independence from Spain.
  • July 25: The Siege of Almeida begins as the French lay siege to British and Portuguese forces.
  • August 20: The French are victorious over the British fleet at the Battle of Grand Port at Mauritius.
  • August 21: Napoleonic general Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte is elected as Crown Prince of Sweden.
  • August 27: Siege of Almeida ends with a French victory.
  • 18 de setembro: Chile declares independence from Spain.
  • September 27: Wellington’s Anglo-Portuguese Army is victorious over the French at the Battle of Bussaco.
  • Outubro: Wellington prevents French forces under Marshall Masséna from capturing Lisbon by staging a successful rearguard action at the Lines of Torres Vedras.
  • 17 de novembro: Sweden declares war on the United Kingdom.
  • December: O HMS Minotaur, a 74-gun ship of the line, strikes a bank and goes down off the coast of the Netherlands. 480 crew members are lost.

Princess Amelia by William Beechy. (Click on image to see a larger version.) She was George III’s youngest and favorite daughter. His grief over her death in 1810 at age 27 is believed to have brought on his final bout of madness.

Society and Social History:

    opens the Hindoostanee Coffee House, the first Indian restaurant in London.
  • 12 de janeiro: Based on a minor technicality, the marriage of Napoleon and Joséphine is annulled. Though he claims to still love her, he needs an heir and she has not been able to produce one.
  • 11 de março: Napoleon marries Archduchess Marie Louisa of Austria, daughter of Austrian emperor Francis I.
  • 3 de maio: While on his Grand Tour, 22-year old Lord Byron swims across the Hellespont (Dardanelles) in a romantic imitation of the mythical Leander, who swam the mile and a half each night to be with his lover, Hero.
  • setembro: A disagreement over troop deployment between George Canning, British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and Lord Castlereagh, the Secretary of State for War, ultimately leads to a duel. Canning, who had never fired a pistol, misses Castlereagh wounds him in the thigh.
  • October 12: First Oktoberfest is held when the Bavarian royalty invites the citizens of Munich to join the celebration of the marriage of Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria to PrincessTherese of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
  • November 2: The death of Princess Amelia sends George III into another bout of mental illness.
  • December: English prizefighter Tom Cribb defends his world bareknuckle championship at Copthall Common, in Sussex, against American-born ex-slave Tom Molineaux, drawing over 10,000 spectators. Cribb is declared the winner after 34 rounds.

Literature, Journalism, and Publishing:

The Portland Vase. (Click on image to see a larger version.)
The first century BC Roman cameo glass vase served as an inspiration to many glass and porcelain makers, especially Josiah Wedgwood, since it was first brought to England by Sir William Hamilton in 1784.


5'11" attacker Fuze has one of the most tragic backstories out of any of Team Rainbow's operators. He played a part in the Moscow theater hostage crisis in 2002, when he was only 20 years old. Now he's 37 years old, with a birthday on October 12th.

Kapkan is one of the most useful defenders in the game with one of the most powerful traps. He's a 40-year-old Spetsnaz operator who stands at 5'11", which is the most physical description most players get of him since he likes to keep his face hidden and painted in camouflage.


Fortress of Almeida

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Surrounded by impressive star-shaped walls, this fortified town was once one of Portugal’s main strongholds. Due to its location near the Spanish border, Almeida has faced frequent sieges through the centuries, yet the town has managed to keep its unique walls in fair condition.

The striking defensive barrier was built during the 17th century and is a fine example of a bastion fort, which at the time were popping up throughout Europe as the use of cannons became more common. It consists of a complex system of bulwarks, ravelins, platforms, trenches, and a moat. There are only two possible entrances, both of which are large, bomb-proof double gates that are accessible through bridges.

The defense system is complete with casemates, sentry-boxes, hidden passages, and embrasures for cannons, which are still present in some sites of the fortress. Though the fortified town’s sharp, geometric splendor is best appreciated from the air, it’s still fascinating to explore the ancient village nestled within its walls.

A primitive, medieval castle was built here during the Moorish occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. The town’s name is derived from al-Ma’ida , the Arabic word for “the table,” which reflects its location atop a plateau. The castle has since had its structure fundamentally changed as centuries passed—it’s been amplified, taken down, and rebuilt as the town of Almeida was successively conquered and reconquered.

Even though the star-shaped walls may seem impenetrable, they haven’t always been able to protect the town within. The castle exploded during the Siege of Almeida in 1810 after a stray shell ignited its main stock of gunpowder. Some of its granite blocks are said to have been found as far as three miles away from their original location. It’s still possible to see remnants of the castle’s foundations inside the town’s star-shaped walls, as well in the lines of displaced stones within the moat. No wall, no matter how long, tall, or geometrically dazzling, is truly impenetrable.

Saiba antes de ir

During the last weekend of August, the town hosts the historical recreation of the Siege of Almeida. The recreation lasts for three days and after the battles, the population mingles with the soldiers from Portugal, France, Spain, and the United Kingdom. It's worth watching and participating.

Almeida is part of the network “Aldeias Históricas de Portugal”, a network of 12 historical villages close to each other and located inland, that also deserve a visit.


Discover the story behind the Siege of Leningrad with Guest Lecturer Anthony Coutts-Britton

Uncover the riveting story behind an important chapter in World War II a s Guest Lecturer Colonel Anthony Coutts-Britton presents &ldquoThe Siege of Leningrad . &rdquo Anthony is a history lecturer and a Fellow of the International Guild of Battlefield Guides who served in the British Army for 26 years . In this presentation , he draws on his experience to explain how this terrible siege fits into the context of the war. Learn more about this dramatic conflict as Anthony answers viewers&rsquo questions during the livestream.

Uncover the riveting story behind an important chapter in World War II a s Guest Lecturer Colonel Anthony Coutts-Britton presents &ldquoThe Siege of Leningrad . &rdquo Anthony is a history lecturer and a Fellow of the International Guild of Battlefield Guides who served in the British Army for 26 years . In this presentation , he draws on his experience to explain how this terrible siege fits into the context of the war. Learn more about this dramatic conflict as Anthony answers viewers&rsquo questions during the livestream.


Siege of Almeida, 25 July-27 August 1810 - History

History of Taganrog in 17-18th centuries

Taganrog was born as the first Russian Navy base and the biggest fortress in South of Russia. Construction of the fortress on the coast of the Azov Sea was aimed at improvement of Russian political, military and strategic situation as it struggled for the access to open seas. The establishment of Russia as a sea power began from the resolution of the &ldquoTurkish Problem&rdquo &ndash the fight for the Azov Sea.

In January 1695 the preparations for the war against the Ottoman Empire were started. The siege of Azov started on July 8, 1695. The army comprised crack regiments and the Don Cossacks and was divided into three units under the command of François Lefort, Patrick Gordon and Avtonom Golovin. Another Russian army (120,000 men, mostly cavalrymen, Streltsy and Cossacks) under the command of Boris Sheremetev set out for the lower reaches of the Dnieper with the goal of diverting the Crimean Khanate's attention. Between June 27 and July 5, the Russians completely blocked Azov from land. After two unsuccessful attacks on August 5 and September 25, the siege was lifted. The failure of the first siege attempt highlighted the significance of having a war fleet and marked the beginning of Russia's turning into a maritime power.

Monument in memory of Peter the Great in Taganrog (old postcard)


By order of Peter the Great was started the construction of the Russian Navy. On April 23, 1696 the Azov Flotilla set out for its first campaign, while the main forces (75,000 men) under the command of Aleksei Shein started to advance towards Azov by land and by water (the rivers of Voronezh and Don). Peter I and his galley fleet left for Azov on May 3. On May 27, the Russian fleet (2 battleships - &ldquoApostle Paul&rdquo and &ldquoApostle Peter&rdquo, 4 fire ships, 23 galleys, 100 rafts etc.) under the command of Lefort reached the sea and blocked Azov. Russian fleet insured the naval blockade of Azov. On June 14, the Turkish fleet (23 ships with 4,000 men) appeared at the mouth of the Don. However, it left after losing 2 ships in combat. After massive bombardment from land and sea and seizure of the external rampart of the fortress by the Cossacks on July 17, the Azov garrison surrendered on July 18.

To keep Azov in his possession and hold off the Turkish Navy, the tsar ordered to expand his small war fleet built during the winter of 1695-96. Peter the Great put the Azov Fleet under the command of Admiral Fyodor Golovin, a Russian nobleman who was the successor of the Swiss François Lefort. Golovin was assisted by vice-admiral Cornelis Cruys and rear-admiral Jan van Rees.

To insure Russian positions in the South, and to shelter the Russian Navy, Peter the Great needed a new haven for the fleet, and a fortress to protect it. Azov could not serve as naval base because of shallow waters of the river Don. That is why, a few days after Turkish capitulation, on July 27, 1696 the Russian tsar set out for an expedition to explore the coastline of Azov Sea. The expedition stopped at the cape Tagan-Rog on July 27, where Peter the Great spent the night of July 27-28, 1696. The cape was selected as the perfect place for the harbor, since the sea around the cape was deep enough for sea boats there was enough room for a haven with solid stone soil and the expedition found a small water spring.

The first Russian Navy base, Taganrog was officially founded by Peter The Great on September 12, 1698. Taganrog is one of the first Russian cities, which was built according to a pre-established detailed plan. Vice-Admiral Cornelis Cruys, who is regarded as the architect of the Russian Navy, became the first Head of Taganrog city in 1698-1702 and in 1711, and produced the first maps of Azov Sea and Don River. The project for planning and building works in the city was established in 1698, basing on the instructions provided by Peter the Great. The seaport of Taganrog represented an irregular water surface of some 774000 square meters it was the first artificial seaport in Russia. The pentagonal fortress was erected on the Cape. Inside the fortress were built stone living-quarters for soldiers and civil population.

By the middle of 1711, according to the information of Mandating Chamber of Taganrog, there were over 8,000 inhabitants in Taganrog. As the development of the social life in the region progressed, Taganrog retained its military and administrative significance and gradually became the handicraft and commerce center.

In 1700-1711, the Azov Sea Navy was the guardian of Russia's Southern frontiers. But in 1710 Turkey unleashed a new war against Russia. Russian troops commanded by Boris Sheremetev were surrounded by superior Turkish forces near Prut River. The Russian tsar had to sign a treaty stipulating the return of Azov to Turkey and destruction of Taganrog. On September 19, 1711 by the order of Peter the Great, Taganrog was demolished and in February 1712 Russian troops left the town. For fifty years the seaport, fortress and town laid in ruins.

The project of the Saint Trinity fortress and seaport of Taganrog (established by Austrian engineer Baron Ernst Friedrich von Borgsdorf)

The Turks recaptured it twice (1712 and 1739), but it was taken by the Russians in 1769 and definitively ceded by Turkey in the Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji (1774). On April 2, 1769 Russian troops entered Taganrog. The city was born again thanks to Catherine the Great, who issued a decree addressed to the Vice-Admiral Aleksey Senyavin. Taganrog once again became the base of the Azov Flotilla.

April 8, 1783 the Crimea was annexed by Russian Empire and the fortress of Taganrog lost its importance. The Azov Flotilla became the starting point in creation of the Russian Black Sea Navy. February 10, 1784 Catherine the Great issued a decree abolishing Taganrog&rsquos fortress status, and thus Taganrog transformed into a noisy commercial seaport.

Taganrog was populated by Greek colonists who, like the Greeks of classical times, took refuge from poverty or tyranny in townships around the northern Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Some Greeks had been Mediterranean pirates and were now tycoons many lived by cheating Russian farmers and bribing Russian customs officials. They spread wealth, not only by conspicuous consumption, but also by generous civic arts, founding orchestras, clubs, schools and churches, bringing in French chefs and importing Italian sculptors.


21-25 Funniest Events in History

21. In 1976, USA launched Operation Paul Bunyan to cut down a tree located in the Korean Demilitarized Zone because it was blocking the view of an area. They sent in tanks, Special Forces, various other vehicles, Tae Kwon Do experts, soldiers with M-16s, grenade launchers, mines, helicopters, artillery, etc., all to cut down a tree. – Source

22. General J. Sedgwick’s last words during the American Civil War were “they couldn’t hit an elephant at this distance,” before being shot under the left eye that killed him. – Source

23. One of the funniest incidents to happen during the 14 th century was the great schism of the Catholic Church. A bunch of cardinals walked into Rome to elect a new pope, and an angry mob declared it will kill all of them if they didn’t elect an Italian pope instead of a French one. They elected an Italian pope, returned back to France, and elected a French pope to be the new pope. Now there were two popes at the same time, each saying the other one was a phony, splitting up Europe into two religious groups, each ready to use religion as their excuse to annihilate the other. The Catholic Church’s solution was to elect another pope, only for absolutely no one to stand behind him. So now there were three popes, all of them saying the other was illegitimate and all of their followers were going to hell. Finally, the Catholic Church got rid of all the popes, and elected a new one, and this time they made sure no angry mobs were there. – Source

24. In 1618, some Catholics and Protestants were settled religious disputes in Prague, when a Protestant threw a Catholic out of a third story window. The Catholic claimed that “The Hand of God” saved him, while the protestants claimed that God mocked them cause they survived by letting them fall into a carriage of horse crap. It started a large war/conflict. – Source

25. In the 1300s, some fellows from Modena stole a bucket from Bologna (both in Italy), resulting in a great deal of humiliation for the Bolognese. They declared war, had a battle with around 2,000 casualties (split between both sides), and failed to reclaim the bucket – Source


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Comentários:

  1. Talehot

    na verdade não gostei)

  2. Traian

    É possível e necessário :) discutir infinitamente

  3. Donaghy

    Que tópico incrível



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